Краткие сообщения Института археологии. Выпуск 225 /
Гл. ред. Н.А. Макаров. М.: Языки славянской культуры, 2011
Материалы круглого стола «Катакомбная культурно-историческая общность/область: структура, номенклатура, динамика развития» (Москва, апрель 2007 г.)
А.Н. Гей. Спорные вопросы и перспективы изучения катакомбной культурно-исторической общности.
В.И. Мельник. Проблема уровней общности катакомбного культурного круга
Э. Кайзер. Проблемы абсолютного датирования катакомбной культуры Северного Причерноморья
Р.А. Мимоход. Радиоуглеродная хронология блока посткатакомбных культурных образований
А.В. Кияшко, Е.П. Сухорукова. О волго-донском варианте полтавкинской культуры.
Е.И. Гак. Индикаторы металлопроизводства катакомбных культур степной зоны Предкавказья и юга Доно-Волжского междуречья
А.А. Клещенко. Бронзовые ножи и шилья раннего этапа эпохи средней бронзы Закубанья
А.Е. Кислый. Демоэкономический анализ населения катакомбных культур с учетом некоторых исторических закономерностей развития
Р.А. Литвиненко. Культурный круг Бабино: название, таксономия и структура
С.Д. Лысенко. К вопросу о культурно-хронологической и функциональной принадлежности костяных «пряжек» в Среднем Поднепровье
А.В. Борисов, Р.А. Мимоход, В.А. Демкин. Палеопочвы и природные условия южнорусских степей в посткатакомбное время
Д.Н. Селиверстов, Ю.А. Чекменев. Развитие рецептуры керамических масс в эпоху средней и поздней бронзы (по материалам катакомбной, абашевской, воронежской и срубных археологических культур Лесостепного Подонья)
Эпоха бронзы. Проблемы и материалы
Р.М. Мунчаев, Ш.Н. Амиров. Сирийская экспедиция Института археологии РАН
(из итогов исследований Телль Хазны 1)
С.Н. Кореневский. Феномен власти в обществах древних земледельцев и скотоводов.
(Теория этнологии и археология)
А.Л. Александровский, В.И. Балабина, Т.Н. Мишина, С.Н. Седов. Телль Юнаците и поселение рядом с ним – сравнительный педологический анализ в контексте археологической стратиграфии
Т.М. Потемкина. Архитектурные особенности кургана Усатово I-4
В.В. Ткачев. Ишкининский археологический микрорайон эпохи бронзы: структура, периодизация, хронология
К.Н. Гаврилов. Новые произведения искусства малых форм из раскопок стоянки Хотылёво 2 (пункт В)
С.В. Кузьминых. Новое в проблематике сеймо-турбинской общности эпохи поздней бронзы
А.А. Бисембаев, С.М. Умрихин. Могильник эпохи поздней бронзы из Актюбинской области
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Proceedings of the Round table “Catacomb cultural and historical unity/zone: Structure, terminology, development” (Moscow, April 2007)
A.N. Gei. Catacomb cultural and historical unity: Problems, discussions, and prospects of investigation.
V.I. Melnik. The Catacomb cultural circle: Problem of the unity structure.
E. Kaiser. The problems of absolute dating of Catacomb culture in the North Pontic zone.
R.A. Mimokhod. Radiocarbon chronology of post-Catacomb cultural units.
A.V. Kiyashko, E.P. Sukhorukova. On the Volga-Don variant of Poltavka culture.
E.I. Gak. Indications of metal production of the Catacomb cultures in the steppe zone of the North Caucasus piedmont and the southern part of the Don-Volga interfluve.
A.A. Kleshchenko. Bronze knives and awlsof the early stage of the Middle Bronze Age in the Kuban basin.
A.E. Kisly. Demographic and economic analysis of Catacomb population with regard to the model of historic development.
R.A. Litvinenko. Babino cultural circle: Name, taxonomy, and structure.
S.D. Lysenko Concerning cultural, chronological, and functional attribution of bone “belt-plates” in the Middle Dnieper area.
A.V. Borisov, R.A. Mimokhod, V.A. Demkin. Palaeosoils and environmental conditions in the steppes of South Russia in the post-Catacomb time.
D.N. Seliverstov, Yu.A. Chekmenev. Development of pottery paste recipes in the Middle and Late Bronze Ages (on the materials of Catacomb, Abashevo, Voronezh, and Timber-grave cultures in the Don forest-steppe).
The Bronze Age. Problems and materials.
R.M. Munchaev, Sh.N. Amirov. Syrian expedition of the Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences (on the results of investigations at Tell Hazna I).
S.N. Korenevsky. Power as a phenomenon in early agricultural and stockbreeding societies (Ethnological theory and archaeology).
A.L. Alexandrovsky, V.I. Balabina, T.N. Mishina, S.N. Sedov. Tell Yunatsite and the nearby settlement – comparative pedological analysis in the context of archaeological stratigraphy.
T.M. Potemkina. Specific architectural features of kurgan Usatovo I-4.
V.V. Tkachev. The Bronze Age Ishkinovka archaeological micro-region: Structure, periodization, chronology.
K.N. Gavrilov. New objects of minor arts from the excavations of the Khotylevo 2 station (point B).
S.V. Kuzminykh. New data on the problems of the Seima-Turbino Late Bronze Age unity.
A.A. Bisembaev, S.M. Umrikhin. Late Bronze Age cemetery in Aktyubinsk region.
Gei A.N. Catacomb cultural and historical unity: Problems, discussions, and prospects of investigation.
Abstract. The paper is an attempt to characterize the present-day situation in investigation of Catacomb cultural and historical unity, a wide-scale phenomenon in the Bronze Age of the South-eastern part of the European steppe. A series of problems related to singling out separate Catacomb cultures and their relationships is pointed out. Of special importance is recently outlined early Catacomb Azov culture placed between the Early Bronze Age entities (Novotitorovka culture) and classical Catacomb cultures (Donets, West- and East-Manych, Ingul groups). Numerous data evidence mainly local way of formation of Catacomb unity and its separate variants, which seriously question migrationist hypotheses, so popular not long ago. Many problems remain unsolved, such as the role Early Bronze Age “wagon burials” played in formation of the Catacomb world, the factors that caused its convergent development, and the processes of its destruction, and the like. Taking into account new materials and hypotheses, it seems necessary to pay serious attention to the traditionally difficult problem of interaction between the steppe and Central European cultures in the Bronze Age.
Ключевые слова: катакомбная культура, хронология, этнокультурный феномен, историческая интерпретация, керамические сосуды.
Melnik V.I. The Catacomb cultural circle: Problem of the unity structure.
Abstract. The author presents a review of the views on the determination of Catacomb archaeological sites starting from their discovery by V.A. Gorodtsov till present, with special attention paid to the evolution of terminology reflecting the ideas on the nature of this unity: a single culture, a set of synchronous local variants, separate Catacomb cultures, Catacomb cultural and historical unity formed of several groups, Catacomb cultural circle. The present situation is considered as a crisis related to the variability of criteria used for determination of status of certain group.
Ключевые слова. Катакомбные памятники, терминология, таксономия, археологическая культура, культурно-историческая общность, культурный вариант, культурное взаимодействие.
Kaiser E. The problems of absolute dating of Catacomb culture in the North Pontic zone.
Abstract. The paper discusses the results of application of scientific methods in constructing absolute chronology of the Bronze Age cultures in the East European steppes. Parallel to the increase of number of radiocarbon dates from the Catacomb sites, new complications have arose. These are related mostly to the methodic approaches specialists use. On the example of Catacomb culture of the North Pontic zone the author shows importance of critical assessment and dates crosschecking. According to the material and association context they are obtained from, the dates are divided into two quality classes. Statistical processing of dates allows obtaining more precise chronology. Thus, it is shown that the early Catacomb culture at least for certain period of time (ca. 2800-2500 BC) co-existed with Pit-grave culture. Methodically, samples should be taken from materials with short lifetime and from several burials of single kurgan forming a stratigraphic sequence. In general, it is necessary to improve quality of publications. Thus it will become possible to construct a reliable chronology of the Bronze Age steppe cultures.
Ключевые слова. Хронология, бронзовый век, абсолютное датирование, радиоуглеродный метод, катакомбная культура, ямная культура, Северное Причерноморье, статистический анализ, метод отбора проб.
Mimokhod R.A. Radiocarbon chronology of post-Catacomb cultural units.
Abstract. The author presents a review of radiocarbon chronology of post-Catacomb cultural groups. The bank of radiocarbon determinations comprises 48 dates, which is clearly insufficient. Anyway, the data are statistically analysed, compared with those obtained for other cultures in synchronic and diachronic aspects, and included into the system of radiocarbon chronology worked out for the East European steppe and forest-steppe during the end of the Middle – the beginning of the Late Bronze Ages. The set of post-Catacomb cultures falls within the interval of the 22nd – 18th cc. BC. It is underlined that in case a system of radiocarbon dates from a single cultural circle is obtained, it generally corresponds to relative chronological column, which is evident for the set of post-Catacomb cultures.
Ключевые слова. Радиоуглеродные датировки, посткатакомбные культуры, средний бронзовый век, поздний бронзовый век, статистический анализ, абсолютная хронология, относительная хронология.
Kiyashko A.V., Sukhorukova E.P. On the Volga-Don variant of Poltavka culture.
Abstract. The paper deals with the problem of specific way of cultural and historical development of the Middle Bronze Age Catacomb culture tribes in the eastern part of their territory – in the Volga-Don steppes. The Volga-Don group is characterized in details (with special attention to the archaic features in the burial rite, original pottery with comb ornamentation related to Poltavka culture). The authors come to the conclusion that the Volga-Don population did not belong to the cultural circle of the coeval Catacomb tribes. The group differs also from the “classical” Poltavka antiquities of the trans-Volga region and should be considered a specific variant of Poltavka culture.
Ключевые слова. Бронзовый век, Волго-Донское междуречье, степная зона, полтавкинская культура, катакомбная культурно-историческая общность, погребальный обряд, культурный вариант.
Gak E.I. Indications of metal production of the Catacomb cultures in the steppe zone of the North Caucasus piedmont and the southern part of the Don-Volga interfluve.
Abstracts. In the paper the problem of metal production and metalworking of the Middle Bronze Age Catacomb culture tribes is discussed. Special attention is paid to the burial associations containing artefacts related to copper casting and metalwork (casting moulds, hammers, anvils etc.). The author considers metal objects from the point of view of morphology, microwear and metallographic analyses. The technology used by the Catacomb craftsmen is similar to what is known about the Circumpontic metal production of the period in question, yet some specific modes of metalworking are revealed typical of the North Caucasus steppe region.
Ключевые слова. Средний бронзовый век, степное Предкавказье, катакомбная культурно-историческая общность, металлообработка, инструментарий, структурный анализ, технико-технологическая характеристика.
Kleshchenko A.A. Bronze knives and awls of the early stage of the Middle Bronze Age in the Kuban basin.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of metal objects from the graves of the trans-Kuban area of the North Caucasus Middle Bronze Age culture. The publication is the first one on this point. Metal finds from the Kuban basin are compared to the synchronous materials from the steppe North Caucasus piedmonts, some quantitative and qualitative differences are revealed. Most significant groups are bronze knives and awls (rods). Early and late groups of knives are singled out. Cultural traditions typical of the local group of the North Caucasus culture and those of their steppe neighbours show essential similarity, yet relationships between them look rather limited. The said is evident from late introduction of knives of type 1, most characteristic of the steppe zone in the trans-Kuban area. On the next chronological stage knives of types 1 and 3 were widely spread, which points out much more intensive contacts between the local trans-Kuban tribes and the steppe population.
Ключевые слова. Предкавказье, Закубанье, средняя бронза, северокавказская культура, бронзовые орудия, культурные связи.
Kisly A.E. Demographic and economic analysis of Catacomb population with regard to the model of historic development.
Abstract. The paper discusses some problems of historic demography in the North Pontic zone. Special stress is made on investigation of evolution in population number, structure, density, changing models of population growth, and the role demographic factor played in the historical process. New ideas in the field of demographic economy are applied to the investigation of producing economy in the steppe zone of Eurasia. The author points to significant disproportions in sex and age structure of the groups during the transition to this type of economy in arid zones, which in the Eneolithic and Bronze Age often resulted in formation of early nomadic economic models.
Ключевые слова. Средний бронзовый век, катакомбная культура, демографический анализ, палеоэкономика, закономерность, историческое развитие.
Litvinenko R.A. Babino cultural circle: Name, taxonomy, and structure.
Abstract. The author singles out archaeological phenomenon of Babino cultural circle. The term “ribbed pottery culture” first used to denote the corresponding sites is considered incorrect, since the culture is not homogeneous and comprises a number of local variants. Now the cultural unity named after the eponymous settlement Babino III is considered a three-level structure, its top level corresponds to the term cultural circle, the middle level is termed as archaeological culture, and the bottom one – as local cultural variant. The Babino cultural circle is subdivided into at least two archaeological cultures – the Dnieper-Don Babino culture, and the Dnieper-Prut Babino culture (the latter included three local variants). Generally, Babino cultural entity represents western part of the post-Catacomb cultural block in Eastern Europe.
Ключевые слова. Бронзовый век, культура многоваликовой керамики, культурный круг, археологическая культура, культурный вариант.
Lysenko S.D. Concerning cultural, chronological, and functional attribution of bone “belt-plates” in the Middle Dnieper area.
Abstract. The article deals with a specific category of finds known as bone belt-plates typical of the terminal period of the Late Bronze Age. The finds are related to a wide circle of archaeological sites characterized by use of horse, battle chariots and cheek-pieces. Over 40 finds are known from the Middle Dnieper area. The author publishes their detailed morphological analyses and classification. He comes to the conclusion that in the Middle Dnieper zone the considered plates functioned in Tszciniec cultural circle and were used not as details of military equipment, but as amulets-ornaments.
Ключевые слова. Поздний бронзовый век, Среднее Поднепровье, поясные пряжки, морфология, классификация, культурная атрибуция.
Borisov A.V., Mimokhod R.A., Demkin V.A. Palaeosoils and environmental conditions in the steppes of South Russia in the post-Catacomb time.
Abstract. In the paper a new approach to the palaeoclimatic investigations is presented. It concerns complex studies based on modelling environmental conditions within relatively short periods of time established according to the period of existence of certain archaeological cultures. The presented research concerns the sites dating to the terminal period of the Middle Bronze Age and attributed to a series of post-Catacomb archaeological cultures known from the North-western Caspian zone, the Kuban River basin, the Lower Volga region, the Dnieper-Don region, and the Dnieper-Prut area. The investigated palaeosoils attributed to different geographical zones have specific feature in common – high level of salinization and carbonates content.
Ключевые слова. Степная зона, Юг России, комплексные исследования, посткатакомбные культуры, палеопочвы, климатические реконструкции, аридизация.
Seliverstov D.N., Chekmenev Yu.A. Development of pottery paste recipes in the Middle and Late Bronze Ages (on the materials of Catacomb, Abashevo, Voronezh, and Timber-grave cultures in the Don forest-steppe).
Abstract. The paper is devoted to the analytical investigation of the Bronze Age cultures’ pottery from the forest-steppe area of the Don basin. The results of three analytical methods (microscopic visual, X-ray structural, and chemical) are presented. Totally over 50 vessels from stratified burial associations and settlements have been analysed. They belong to the Middle Don Catacomb culture, the Don-Volga Abashevo culture, Voronezh culture, and the Don Timber-grave cultures. The late Catacomb, Abashevo, Voronezh, and Timber-grave potters used for making paste pure plastic clay with grog admixture. It is shown that by the period of formation of the Late Bronze Age Timber-grave culture on the Middle Don specific technology of pottery-making had been worked out by the craftsmen of the Middle Don Catacomb culture.
Ключевые слова. Керамическое производство, формовочная масса, средний бронзовый век, поздний бронзовый век, Средний Дон, микроскопический анализ, химический анализ, рентгено-структурный анализ, производственная традиция.
Munchaev R.M., Amirov Sh.N. Syrian expedition of the Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences (on the results of investigations at Tell Hazna I).
Abstract. The paper is devoted to the researches carried on in the North-Eastern Syria, mostly concentrated at stratified urban settlement Tell Hazna I. The site’s stratigraphic sequence includes cultural deposits of the Ubaid and Uruk epochs, and the Early Dynastic I. Economic and social development in the second part of the 4th mill. BC was accelerated by favourable climatic conditions. The obtained materials reflect early stages of formation of state-like structures in the Habur steppe that was finally shaped in the second part of the 3rd mill. BC. The existence of social elite is evidenced by the monumental administrative and religious complex built at the turn of the 4th and 3rd mill. BC. But the process of social development was stopped by serious aridization of climate that had undermined material welfare of the population, and, finally, caused the site abandonment in the late ED I (around 2700 BC). For some time the territory of the settlement was still used as a burial place.
Ключевые слова. Северо-восточная Сирия, многослойный археологический памятник, городское поселение, убейдский период, урукский период, раннединастический период, административно-храмовый комплекс, климатические изменения.
Korenevsky S.N. Power as a phenomenon in early agricultural and stockbreeding societies (Ethnological theory and archaeology).
Abstract. The importance of ethnological theories for the investigations of the origin and development of phenomenon of power is stressed. The author
singles out such aspects, as moral, spiritual, economic, and military power and their historic development. It is shown that the way from a temporal military leader to a prince or king allotted with permanent military power by birth was a long and complicated one. It lasted from the earliest communities till the period of pre-state formations (from the 8th – 6th to the 3rd millennia BC). Archaeological associations show representatives of social elite as military leaders, magicians, priests, organisers of feasts. Generally, the paper represents an attempt to develop the trend in archaeology once termed by C. Renfrew as Cognitive archaeology, with special attention concentrated on the reconstruction of social development of ancient society.
Ключевые слова. Этнология, археология, власть, социальное развитие, социальные реконструкции, моральные нормы, духовное лидерство, экономика, военный лидер, временная власть, наследственная власть.
Alexandrovsky A.L., Balabina V.I., MishinaT.N., Sedov S.N. Tell Yunatsite and the nearby settlement – comparative pedological analysis in the context of archaeological stratigraphy.
Abstract. The results of interdisciplinary studies performed at the Thracian sites dating from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age are presented in the article. The data of soil, chemical, and micromorphological investigations of the sediments are compared to the archaeological stratigraphy of the two multilayer settlements for a long time excavated by joint Russian-Bulgarian expedition. The results of complex analytical studies do not agree in all aspects, since each method has certain limitations, which is clearly revealed when applied to the multilayer sites’ deposits. The factors that cause disagreements should be established and analysed.
Ключевые слова. Многослойное поселение, Южная Фракия, энеолит, бронзовый век, комплексные исследования, почвенный анализ, химический анализ, микроморфологический анализ.
Potemkina T.M. Specific architectural features of kurgan Usatovo I-4.
Abstract. The paper considers architectural structure of kurgan Usatovo I-4, with regard to different interpretations of its semantics (Fig. 1, I-III). The author draws archaeoastronomic data, which disagrees with the reconstruction of the mound and stone constructions as a stylized image of a frog (Fig. 1, I, II). The author proves that the architecture of the stone circle corresponds to the basic moments of the solar and lunar cycles. The structure includes six solar and six lunar directions, orientations pointing North and South marking daily and seasonal changes in the celestial bodies (Fig. 2, I). These data suggest that the Usatovo population practiced solar and lunar cults. Certain cosmogonic ideas are also evidenced by painted decoration of a bowl interpreted as lunar monthly calendar (Fig. 2, II, 4). Accordingly, the architectural structure of kurgan Usatovo I-4 mirrors burial and ritual practices, and calendar traditions of the Early Bronze Age population of the North Pontic zone.
Ключевые слова. Ранний бронзовый век, Северное Причерноморье, усатовская культура, курган, архитектурные особенности, ритуал, археоастрономия, календарный цикл.
Tkachev V.V. The Bronze Age Ishkinovka archaeological micro-region: Structure, periodization, chronology.
Abstract. In the Ural region of Mugodzhary in the Late Bronze Age there functioned a powerful centre of mining and metallurgy. A series of archaeological micro-regions formed by dense clusters of sites entered this structure. The sites of different types were related to the ancient mines discovered in the zones of copper ore deposits. Complex investigations carried out in the Ishkinovka archaeological micro-region (the eastern part of Orenburg region) revealed a settlement, a cluster of cemeteries, surface finds, a series of geo-archaeological production sites (copper mines). Burial associations of the Early Bronze Age Pit-grave culture and Sintashta culture dating from the turn of the Middle and Late Bronze Ages were investigated. The majority of sites date from the Late Bronze Age; they represent a single complex, which functioned as a regional economic and cultural focus based on the combination of mining and metallurgy with shift stock-breeding.
Ключевые слова. Урал, Мугоджарский район, бронзовый век, микрорайон, горно-металлургический центр, медные месторождения, рудник, хозяйственно-культурный центр, адаптация.
Gavrilov K.N. New objects of minor arts from the excavations of the Khotylevo 2 station (point B).
Abstract. The Upper Palaeolithic station of Khotylevo 2 is excavated on the Desna River (Bryansk region). The site enters the Eastern Gravette cultural circle. Among the most significant finds there are objects of primitive art. The anthropomorphic figurines discovered at the site generally represent three types: female statuettes shaped in realistic manner, schematic female figurines, and a male (?) statuette. In the paper two new figurines from the excavations of 2009 are published. These are: a unique double female statuette, and a schematic anthropomorphic one. The author publishes their detailed description and a series of analogies.
Ключевые слова. Верхний палеолит, восточный Граветт, стоянка Хотылево 2, первобытное искусство, скульптура малых форм, женская статуэтка, стилистический анализ.
Kuzminykh S.V. New data on the problem of the Seima-Turbino unity.
Abstract. The Seima-Turbino problem is a key one in the Late Bronze Age archaeology of North Eurasia. The discussion concerning the phenomenon lasts for over a century, starting from the discovery of the Borodino treasure and the Seima cemetery. The problem raised much interest after publication of the book by E.N. Chernykh and S.V. Kuzminykh in 1989. During 20 years that passed after this publication the database on metal finds and casting moulds has increased substantially: 180 metal finds and 5 moulds of the Seima-Turbino types, and over 200 finds and 12 moulds of Samus-Kizhirovo types. The paper presents a review of these materials. Of special interest are the Ust-Vetluga cemetery and the Galich treasure in the European area, in the Asiatic territory the Satyga cemetery on the Konda River, and the cemetery Preobrazhenka 6 and plundered nameless necropolis near Omsk on the Om River. Among the sites of Samus-Kizhirovo types very important are the sanctuary Shaitanskoe Lake 2 (Koptyaki culture) and the cemetery on the Tatarka mountain on the Yenisej River.
Ключевые слова. Поздний бронзовый век, сейма-турбинская проблема, археологический памятник, модель расселения, база данных, морфология.
Bisembaev A.A., Umrikhin S.M. Late Bronze Age cemetery in Aktyubinsk region.
Abstract. The authors publish the materials obtained by the excavations of the Late Bronze Age cemetery Guryuldek in the north of Aktyubinsk region (Kazakhstan Republic). Four kurgans with single burial each were investigated. The mounds contained stone enclosures with central burial inside. Burial chambers were built mostly of stone and timber; grave goods included pottery and personal ornaments. The associations have features in common with Alakul-type sites, which establishes chronology of the cemetery within the developed stage of the LBA (the 15th – 13th cc. BC). The site is attributed to the Kozhumberdy cultural group with typical combination of the Alakul and Fedorovka characteristics.
Ключевые слова. Поздний бронзовый век, Республика Казахстан, курганный могильник, алакульская культура, керамический комплекс, кожумбердынская культурная группа.
Translated by L.I. Avilova