PROBLEMS AND MATERIALS
Faradzheva N. N., Tarabardina O. A., Gaidukov P. G. The Lyudin End Streets in Medieval Novgorod: Tasks, Issues and Methodology of Studies. . . . . 7 [pdf]
Tarabardina O. A., Karpukhin A. A., Matskovsky V V., Solovyeva L. N. Dendrochronology of medieval Novgorod: analysis of Chronological and Quantitative distribution of Dendrochronological dates of Wood samples. . . . . 22 [pdf]
Kleshchenko E. A. Historical dynamics of Funeral rites Practiced by the Population of the Mologa – Sheksna Interfluve in the First Millennium AD (experience in application of the bioarchaeological approach to the studies of cremation remains) . . . . . 36 [pdf]
Kapustina E. P. Bosporus Vessels with Wild Boar-Shaped Handles: Experience of Applying Cartographic Software Tools. . . . . 59 [pdf]
FROM STONE TO BRONZE
Sorokin A. N. Revisiting the Issue of Differences between Dune Sites and Bog Settlements. . . . . 67 [pdf]
Avilova L. I., Gey A. N. On the Use of Weighting Systems in the Bronze Age. . . . . 82 [pdf]
Balabina V I., Mishina T. N. Loom-weights as Evidence of Weaving at Tell Yunatsite. . . . . 94 [pdf]
Korenevskiy S. N. The Earliest Catacombs and Symbolic Aspects of Striking Weapons among the Populations Groups of the Early Copper-Bronze Age from the North Pontic – Fore-Caucasus Steppes. . . . . 105 [pdf]
Melnik V. I. Cultural Syncretism in the Burial Practice during the Middle Bronze Age in the Kuban River Steppes. . . . . 120 [pdf]
Volkova E. V. The Moscow Local Group of the Fatyanovo Culture: the Social Structure of the Population and Relative Chronology of Cemeteries. . . . . 132 [pdf]
Polyakov F. A. The Estimated Number of Bronze Age Kurgan Cemeteries in the Oka-Don Plain. . . . . 143 [pdf]
Skakov A. Yu., Dzhopua A. I. New Finds of the Koban-Colchian Graphic Art in Abkhazia. . . . . 154 [pdf]
INVESTIGATIONS OF THE IRON AGE SITES
Zavoykin A. A. Athena and Gorgon Medusa at Sanctuary Beregovoy 4. . . . . 168 [pdf]
Gulyaev V. I. Anthropomorphic Belt Buckles of the Scythian Period from the Crimea. . . . . 185 [pdf]
Berezin S. Ya., Maslov V. E. An Early Scythian Grave at Progess-2. . . . . 191 [pdf]
Rumyantseva O. S. Cast glass from the Chernyakhov culture settlement of Komarov: prestigious vessels or raw materials for a glass workshop? . . . . . 203 [pdf]
Berezutsky V D., Mastykova A. V. The Grave on the Left Bank of the Middle Don Dated to the Migration Period. . . . . 219 [pdf]
HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE
Sorokina I. A. The Archaeological Unit in the System of the People’s Commissariat of Education (1918-1926) . . . . . 244 [pdf]
Flyorov V. S. From Historiography of the mid-20111 – early 21st Centuries of the semikarakory Fortress and other Khazarian sites in the Lower Don Region. . . . . 257 [pdf]
Lopatin N. V. Towards the Jubilee of «Archaeological discoveries». . . . . 272 [pdf]
ABBREVIATIONS. . . . . 277 [pdf]
Faradzheva N. N., Tarabardina O. A., Gaidukov P. G. The Lyudin End Streets in Medieval Novgorod: Tasks, Issues and Methodology of Studies
Abstract. The paper is devoted to three streets of medieval Novgorod – Proboynaya Street, Yarysheva Street, and Chernitsyna Street explored during multi-year archaeological excavations in the Troitsky excavation trench. As the alignments of these streets were excavated in various excavation trenches, the top priority of the study was to determine the sequence of construction horizons reflecting planigraphy and chronology of timber pavements made over a long timeline starting from the 930-s to the middle of the 15th century. The study builds on comprehensive analysis of stratigraphic and dendrochronologic data used as a basis for conclusions on construction and development of the Lyudin End road network in medieval Novgorod.
Keywords: medieval Novgorod, street pavements, dendrochronology, planigraphy, stratigraphy.
Tarabardina O. A., Karpukhin A. A., Matskovsky V V., Solovyeva L. N. Dendrochronology of medieval Novgorod: analysis of Chronological and Quantitative distribution of Dendrochronological dates of Wood samples
Abstract. The paper examines the results of the analysis concerning chronological and quantitative distribution of the dendrochronological dates of wood samples from the occupation layer of Veliky Novgorod. This analysis helps identify general patterns of urban development both in specific city boroughs and in entire Novgorod. The link between urban construction and fires described in chronicles has been identified (in the borough known as the Slavna End). Besides the periods of active stock-piling of timber and construction of mansions, finds from some excavation trenches reveal chronological gaps associated with post-occupational layers, which can be explained by certain extraordinary events (for example, epidemics described in written sources) (the Liudin End). The earlier dendrochronological dates are indicative of urban construction in various boroughs of the city starting from the first half of the 10th century (the Liudin End, the Nerevskiy End, the Kremlin) and demonstrate a gradual expansion of the Novgorod area both around the St. Sophia part and the Market part of the city.
Keywords: dendrochronology, medieval archaeology, chronological and quantitative distribution of dendrochronological dates.
Kleshchenko E. A. Historical dynamics of Funeral rites Practiced by the Population of the Mologa – Sheksna Interfluve in the First Millennium AD (experience in application of the bioarchaeological approach to the studies of cremation remains)
Abstract. The study of cremation remains is a relevant area of research, which has been developing on the basis of new methodological approaches applied. Cremations from 18 cemeteries dating to the first millennium AD , which were investigated in the M ologa Sheksna interfluve, were examined. Three basic elements of the funeral rite, which reflect cultural and chronological dynamics of stability or variability of burial traditions, were identified by bioarchaeological methods. The data obtained provided an insight into traits of the funeral rite practiced by the local population and helped identify new traditions linked to the arrival of new population groups, which developed starting from mid-1st mill. AD.
Keywords: funeral rite, basic elements of the funeral rite, cremated cemeteries, Early Iron Age, Early Middle Ages, long kurgan culture of the Pskov type, migrations.
Kapustina E. P. Bosporus Vessels with Wild Boar-Shaped Handles: Experience of Applying Cartographic Software Tools
Abstract. The paper examines a set of Bosporus vessels with handles shaped as a wild boar, the area of their spread, basic traits, co-occurrence of this type of handles and other types of ceramic zoomorphic handles. The issues of semantic attribution are mentioned as well. New software features of archaeological material mapping tools have been illustrated, and possibilities of Terek which is an automated information processing system and electronic maps for analytical and representational purposes of the studies have been demonstrated.
Keywords: ceramics with zoomorphic handles, Bosporus, Roman period, mapping in archaeology, geo-information systems, databases.
Sorokin A. N. Revisiting the Issue of Differences between Dune Sites and Bog Settlements
Abstract. The Mesolithic in the European part of Russia is represented, mostly, by dune sites. A substantial increase in the number of the so called bog settlements discovered and excavated in the 1980–1990-s has created a myth of the bog settlement wealth and scarcity of finds at the dune sites. The author’s excavation experience demonstrates that this kind of comparison and relevant conclusions are not quite right. Dry valleys where people lived were the same in both cases, they are usually made up of sand. Differences between these two types of the sites reside in absence of depositional sediment tails at the dune sites and their presence at many bog settlements. Depositional sediment tails are relief features of quick accumulation, where organic matter was buried at once and is preserved much better. However, tails are not settlements and their inhabited areas. Basically, they are no more than natural dumping grounds with an abundance of artifacts. To shape an adequate picture of the past, there is a need to compare phenomena of the same magnitude, which are constructed on the basis of the geoarchaeology methods.
Keywords: dune sites, bog settlements, stratigraphy, occupation layer, depositional sediment tail, organic residue.
Avilova L. I., Gey A. N. On the Use of Weighting Systems in the Bronze Age
Abstract. The article is focused on a group of archaeological findings associated with trade and exchange relations during the Bronze Age and their role in the economy of ancient society. An attempt is made to present an analysis of the objects, operatively defined as weights, and a general overview is given of the relevant findings from the 3rd–2nd millennia B. C. E . from Anatolia (Troy, Mahmatlar, Uluburun). The weighting standards of stone weights are compared to the weight categories of ingots from precious metals and blanks for jewellery. The authors draw the conclusions that there existed intensive trade relations between Troy II–VI with the region of Syria and Mesopotamia, and that in Anatolia both corresponding weight systems and local Anatolian weighting standard were used. The article provides data attesting the usage of Near Eastern weight standards in the Kuban region (Novotitorovka culture) and North Pontic region (Ingul Catacomb culture), which poses questions on the nature of the use of such type of objects in the functioning of long-distance trade, as well as on the scale of weight system used in the 3rd millennium B. C. E . The use of weight standards evidences the exchange of values between specialized population groups involved in the production and exchange of metals that stimulated the infiltration of Near Eastern civilizational elements in a distant periphery.
Keywords: Bronze Age, exchange, weights, weighting systems, weighting standards, metal artefacts, ingots, blanks, Near East, North Pontic region.
Balabina V I., Mishina T. N. Loom-weights as Evidence of Weaving at Tell Yunatsite
Abstract. For a long time (until the Hellenistic period) cloth-making was domestic production and the responsibility of women. Depending on the specific characteristics of the fiber used, this multi-stage process included various activities, including two mandatory activities such as spinning and weaving. This paper examines loom-weights as an evidence of weaving at the Yunatsite settlements. The collection is composed of 144 loom-weights (most of which are fragments) recovered from the settlements of the Early Bronze Age (EBA horizons XVII/XVI-I) and the settlements of Chalcolithic Period uppermost horizon (BI) (Fig. 2). This uninspiring group of finds is published rarely; however, various designs of the loom and weaving methods are linked to it. Four morphological groups were singled out; the height of the pyramid-shaped loom-weights was analyzed. The archaeological context was reconstructed for 30 % of the loom-weights; as a rule, they were found in dwellings. The paper describes ‘collective finds’ when several loom-weights were found together. Relative stratigraphy of the loom-weights demonstrates their predominance in EBA II–III (Table 1).
Keywords: Tell Yunatsite, loom-weights, weaving, EBA , horizons, Eneolithic, stratigraphy, dwellings, collective finds.
Korenevskiy S. N. The Earliest Catacombs and Symbolic Aspects of Striking Weapons among the Populations Groups of the Early Copper-Bronze Age from the North Pontic – Fore-Caucasus Steppes
Abstract. The main tasks of the paper is to review the earliest catacombs and striking weapons in the funeral rite practiced by the Pontic – Fore-Caucasus population groups of the Early Eneolithic (5th mill. BC) as well as to study catacomb graves containing Maikop-Novosvobodnaya ceramics dating to 4th mill. BC. The paper concludes that the form of the Eneolithic catacomb in the steppe area of Eastern Europe and the Fore-Caucasus is related to the burial tradition used to bury some women and children. Graves containing striking weapons (weapons, stone adzes) are related to burials of adult males made in pits. Stone adzes have not been found in female graves. In accordance with the child burial rite, grave offerings and details of the funeral garment included things typical for both the male and the female burial rites. The form of a catacomb or a niche burial and its cult meaning were adopted by the Maikop and Novosvobodnaya unities and are recorded in their Kuma-Manych periphery from time to time.
Keywords: Eneolithic, catacomb, niche, pit, anthropology, age, sex, burial rite, scepter, weapon, axe, adze, pectoral, arrow, Maikop-Novosvobodnaya unity, ceramics, steppes, piedmont area, chronology.
Melnik V. I. Cultural Syncretism in the Burial Practice during the Middle Bronze Age in the Kuban River Steppes
Abstract. The paper gives a brief overview of burials containing multicultural components which reflect contacts and their penetration into an alien cultural milieu in the Kuban steppes during the Middle Bronze Age. Such burials have been grouped into two chronological ranges, namely, the earlier chronological range synchronous with the A zov culture and the later chronological range synchronous with the Baturino culture. The earlier range includes the Yamnaya-Catacomb group and the Early North Caucasus Catacomb group. The later range includes the Manych group with turnipshaped pottery from the Chelbas upstream areas, the Baturino group with turnip-shaped pottery from the Beisug River and the Kerpili River basins. Contacts between various cultural traditions led to cultural syncretism even in such conservative traditions as the funeral practice.
Keywords: funeral practice, Kuban River steppes, Middle Bronze Age, cultural syncretism, Catacomb culture.
Volkova E. V. The Moscow Local Group of the Fatyanovo Culture: the Social Structure of the Population and Relative Chronology of Cemeteries
Abstract. The paper presents thorough analysis of several aspects related to social history of the Moscow local group of the Fatyanovo culture. The study of distinctive features of the burial rite and pottery traditions made it possible to identify (i) individuals with a special social status; (ii) various types of cemeteries; (iii) their relative chronology within the historical period of this local group using the examined materials as a basis.
Keywords: Bronze Age, Fatyanovo culture, burial rite, pottery traditions, social structure, periodization.
Polyakov F. A. The Estimated Number of Bronze Age Kurgan Cemeteries in the Oka-Don Plain
Abstract. This publication is devoted to development of estimation principles used to calculate a probable number of Bronze Age kurgan burial cemeteries in the south of the O ka-Don plain. The comparison with earlier studies provided an opportunity to define areas with the maximum concentration and the highest number of the mounds dated to the Bronze Age.
Keywords: kurgan burial ground, mound, Bronze Age, Oka-Don plain, topography.
Skakov A. Yu., Dzhopua A. I. New Finds of the Koban-Colchian Graphic Art in Abkhazia
Abstract. During the excavations of the Dzhantukh cemetery of the Late Bronze Age – Early Iron Age in Eastern Abkhazia hidden pits, which had been made before the burial constructions were put to operation, were discovered in two secondary multiple burials. One of the hidden pits is dated to the 6th–5th centuries BC, whereas the other is dated to the 4th century BC. The earlier hidden pit revealed three almost intact bronze plates decorated with peculiar engraved images of animals, whose purpose is unclear. The second hidden pit contained fragments of similar plates. Stylistically, the images are similar to the previously unknown local variant of the Koban-Colchian graphic art and the art of South Caucasus bronze belts with engraved images.
Keywords: Colchis, Early Iron Age, bronze engraved belts, secondary burial rite, multiple burial pits, Koban-Colchian art.
Zavoykin A. A. Athena and Gorgon Medusa at Sanctuary Beregovoy 4
Abstract. The paper examines two medallions featuring the heads of Athena Parthenos and Medusa discovered in the course of excavating the Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone-Kore in the Taman Peninsula. Such items are quite common finds both at sanctuaries and, especially frequently, in the graves of the 4th–3rd centuries BC in Bosporus and other regions of the Greek world as well as the areas populated by local barbarians (the Kuban River Basin). Based on the thematical similarity between the burial cult and the worship of Eleusinian goddesses, the author tries to find out the place of Athena (and M edusa as its attribute) in this cult. The role of the goddess in the Eleusinian cult is not quite clear. However, it may be suggested that the link between the goddess and the burial tradition is defined by this role. In other words, we cannot rule out that medallions with the heads of Athena and Medusa from Bosporan Greeks’ graves, probably, indicate that the deceased individuals were somehow connected with the Eleusinian mysteries.
Keywords: Bosporus, Taman’ Peninsula, sanctuary, Demeter, Kore-Persephone, Eleusinian cult, Athena, Gorgon, burial customs, votive offerings, medallions.
Gulyaev V. I. Anthropomorphic Belt Buckles of the Scythian Period from the Crimea
Abstract. The paper explores a group of artifacts, which is rather rare for the Scythian culture, i.e. metal belt buckles featuring mounted warriors. All buckles are chance finds coming from the Crimea.
Keywords: Scythians, riders, Crimea, belt buckles.
Berezin S. Ya., Maslov V. E. An Early Scythian Grave at Progess-2
Abstract. The grave from the Cemetery known as Progress-2 in the Stavropol Region described in this publication may be referred to the ‘early Scythian’ or ‘Zhabotin’ antiquities, which precede the spread of the Kelermes antiquities, directly linked to military campaigns to expand into Southwest Asia in Scythian history. Artifacts from the grave include a set of bronze arrowheads and plaques for a wooden cup that originated on the steppe. The arrowheads from the grave suggest that it can be dated to the first half of the 7th century BC. As archaeology does not have clear criteria of ethnic grouping, the ethnic attribution of these artifacts as ‘early Scythian’ may be only hypothetical.
Keywords: Early Scythian culture, Koban culture, Novocherkassk culture, antiquities of the ‘Kelermes’ horizon.
Rumyantseva O. S. Cast glass from the Chernyakhov culture settlement of Komarov: prestigious vessels or raw materials for a glass workshop?
Abstract. A number of fragments from cast glass vessels – of blue (1st century AD ) and millefiori glass (dating to the time of the site occupation or to an earlier period) – were discovered at the settlement of Komarov (the Middle Dniester, Ukraine) dating to the Late Roman time. Most fragments are related to sets of glass that can be interpreted as glass cullet used in secondary glass working, which was documented at the site. Some sets of glass come from dwelling houses, whose chronology implies that this production existed at the site in the middle–third quarter of the 4th century. This conclusion is also confirmed by the data on the glass composition. The types of dwelling houses suggest that the local population took part in supply cullet to the workshop. The cullet contains both glass, which was, probably, collected at the site or in its vicinity, and imported glass (pieces of window panes and cast vessels).
Keywords: Chernyakhov culture, cast glass, glass working, Late Roman time.
Berezutsky V D., Mastykova A. V. The Grave on the Left Bank of the Middle Don Dated to the Migration Period
Abstract. The paper explores a dug-in grave from the Migration Period discovered in a Bronze Age kurgan near the village of Novaya Chigla of the Talovsky District in the Voronezh Region (the Don Left Bank). The deceased person is a man of 35–44 years. His skull shows the signs of deliberate deformation. The date of the grave is determined by a set of funeral offerings, which have parallels in the graves from the Northern Black Sea maritime steppes and the Middle Danube and covers a timespan from the second third of the 5th century to the second half of the 6th century, which means the final stage of the Hun period and the early stage of the post-Hun period on the Eastern Europe steppes.
Keywords: Don Left Bank, kurgan, a dug-in grave, funeral offerings, Hun and post-Hut periods.
Sorokina I. A. The Archaeological Unit in the System of the People’s Commissariat of Education (1918-1926)
Abstract. The Soviet Government had to tackle the issue of recording and preservation of archaeological heritage right after the revolution. The Archaeological Unit (AU) run by V. A . Gorodtsov was set up within the Department of Museums and Preservation of Historical and Artistic Sites of the People’s Commissariat of Education (Narkompros) to manage archaeological heritage in 1918. The AU activities influenced the entire organization of archaeology in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RS FSR ). These activities can be studied only by archival sources. The AU was reorganized more than once and was in operation until the end of 1926. The AU main responsibilities were as follows: (i) administrative work: keeping records of archaeological sites as well as entities and individuals involved in archaeological studies across the RS FSR ; compilation of complete lists of state and private collections, which also included archaeological collections, in Russia and abroad; facilitation of organization of archaeological meetings; (ii) methodological work: assistance to museums in acquisition, appropriate display and storage of archaeological finds; to perform the latter function, it compiled a subject catalogue of archaeological artifacts for the entire RS FSR distributed by cultural periods and ages; (iii) research: organization and conduction of expeditions; preparation of archaeological maps of the RS FSR ; preparation of bibliography on Russian archaeology; launching initiatives on setting up scientific societies and educational institutions specializing in archaeology and relevant assistance. After establishment of the Russian Academy for the History of Material Culture in April 1919, two institutions started competing with each other, which had an adverse impact on development of Russian archaeology. The new stage in the archaeological service development began when V.A. Gorodtsov resigned as the head of the AU. The time required new people and new concepts.
Keywords: Academy for the History of Material Culture; Department of Museums and Preservation of Historical and Artistic Sites; People’s Commissariat of Education; Archaeological Unit; archival materials.
Flyorov V. S. From Historiography of the mid-20111 – early 21st Centuries of the semikarakory Fortress and other Khazarian sites in the Lower Don Region
Abstract. The paper contains an overview of opinions about the purpose for which the Khazar Kaganate fortresses, such as the Semikarakory, the Pravoberezhnoe Tsimlyanskoe, the Sarkel Fortresses and other fortresses, were built. Publications by M. Artamonov, S. Pletneva, A. Ivanov, K. Tsukerman, A. Tortika, V. Petrukhin, V. Kluchnikov, G. Afanasyev are reviewed. The paper concludes that none of the existing versions concerning the purpose for which the fortresses were built is widely accepted since the scope of the excavations has been insignificant (except for the Sarkel fortress) and chronology has not been established. The link between the fortresses and kurgans of the Sokolvosky type remains questionable.
Keywords: Khazar Kaganate, Lower Don region, fortresses, graves, historiography.
Lopatin N. V. Towards the Jubilee of «Archaeological discoveries»
Abstract. Half a century ago the first issue of the annual «Arkheologicheskiye otkrytiya» («Archaeological discoveries») was published (1966). From 1987 till 1992 in the annual’s editing there was an interval, publication resumed in 1993. At present totally 40 issues of the edition have been published. Special feature of «Archaeological discoveries» is publication of concentrated information on the results of the field season within national scale along with its concise presentation. The edition must preserve and maintain its significance as an important element in the system of scientific information in Russian archaeology.
Keywords: annual, «Archaeological discoveries», publication, field season, information.