MATERIALS OF FIFTH ROUND TABLE “ARCHAEOLOGY AND GEOINFORMATICS” (APRIL 14–15, 2010, INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY, MOSCOW)
Korobov D. S. Introduction . . . . . 3 [pdf]
Vovkodav S. M. Creating an information system of burial mounds in the Brovarka River valley . . . . . 8 [pdf]
Korobov D. S. GIS-modelling of the Early Medieval agricultural landscapes in the Kislovodsk depression . . . . . 17 [pdf]
Petrov M. I. GIS-technologies in investigation of the medieval urban household (on the materials from the Posolsky-2006 excavation area) . . . . . 27 [pdf]
Fedyunin I. V. Possibilities of 3D modelling of cultural layers at the Mesolithic sites in the Middle Don valley (a reference site of Chetverikovo case study) . . . . . 37 [pdf]
Zhukovsky M. O. Use of CORONA satellite data in archaeological research . . . . . 45 [pdf]
Gainullin I. I., Diomina Yu. V., Usmanov B. M. Application of GIS-technologies for the estimation of erosion process at the archaeological sites situated on the bank of the Kujbyshev Reservoir . . . . . 54 [pdf]
Smekalov S. L. Magnetic survey of ancient sites in the Crimea and Taman Peninsula in 2009
Bezdudnyj V. G., Radyush O. A. Preliminary results of using magnetometry at the settlement sites: geophysical survey of the Razdolje II settlement case study . . . . . 71 [pdf]
Fedorina A. N. Medieval rural sites of the Suzdal region on the basis of archaeology and geophysics: investigations of 2008 . . . . . 77 [pdf]
Noskevich V. V., Fedorova N. V. Mapping archaeological sites of the Middle Bronze Age with help of detailed magnetic survey . . . . . 87 [pdf]
Kohl Ph., Magomedov R., Misiewicz K. Geophysical prospecting of the Bronze Age site Velikent in 2007 . . . . . 93 [pdf]
Zhurbin I. V. Characteristics of formation of fortification structures at the hillfort of Idnakar (archaeological and geophysical investigations) . . . . . 104 [pdf]
Albegova (Tsarikaeva) Z. Kh., Kovalevskaya V. B. Early medieval ring-shape amulets . . . . . 109 [pdf]
Dmitrieva Yu. A., Suchilin A. A., Inevatkina O. N. Working out archaeological GIS structure “Cultural heritage of Zarafshan valley” . . . . . 122 [pdf]
PROBLEMS AND MATERIALS
Sanzharov S. N. The Abashevo burial rite in the Donets River basin and its identification among the local antiquities . . . . . 134 [pdf]
Stolyarov E. V. The Upper Oka Early Iron Age culture: Actual investigational problems and solution perspectives . . . . . 150 [pdf]
Stoyanov R. V. Tomb 1517–1522 at the necropolis of Chersonese Taurian . . . . . 159 [pdf]
Oblomsky A. M., Syrovatko A. S., Saprykina I. A. Certain type of horse-shape pendants in the forest and forest-steppe zones of Eastern Europe . . . . . 169 [pdf]
Sidorenko T. E. Metal woman decoration of the Don Alans (Historiography of the problem and actual tasks) . . . . . 178 [pdf]
Uspensky P. S. The results and perspectives of investigation of cremation burials in the North-Western Caucasus (8 th – 13 th cc. AD) . . . . . 188 [pdf]
Druzhinina I. A. Concerning a group of medieval kurgans in the Upper Kuban basin . . . . . 196 [pdf]
Lopatin N. V. Some problems of the history of early Izborsk fortifications . . . . . 213 [pdf]
Morgunov Yu. Yu. Entrance constructions of the Medieval town of Sneporod . . . . . 220 [pdf]
Gaidukov M. P. The Kozorog stone tower of the Okolny defensive wall in Veliky Novgorod . . . . . 230 [pdf]
Kudryavtsev A. A. A 10th-century door from Novgorod (the materials of the Troitsky excavation area XII) . . . . . 239 [pdf]
Lavysh K. A. Pieces of Oriental art from the territory of Byelorussia: Known and new finds (the 10 th – 14 th cc.) . . . . . 244 [pdf]
Zavyalov V. I., Terekhova N. N. Technological innovations in blacksmith’s craft of the Beloozero region . . . . . 255 [pdf]
Derzhavin V. L. Burial complexes of the Spitsbergen Pomors . . . . . 267 [pdf]
Likhter Yu. A. Databases in investigation of the world of ancient objects: Technology and possibilities . . . . . 275 [pdf]
Starkov V. F., Derzhavin V. L. The activity of the Arctic archaeology Group in 2002–2006 . . . . . 285 [pdf]
ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . 289 [pdf]
D.S. Korobov. Introduction.
Abstract. In this issue the materials of the Fifth Round Table “Archaeology and geoinformatics” (April 14-15, 2010, Institute of Archaeology, Moscow) are published. Over 50 researchers from the scientific and educational institutions of Russia and Ukraine participated in the meeting. Representatives of the cultural heritage protection organizations from different centres took part in the work: Veliky Novgorod, Izhevsk, Kazan, Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Stavropol, Cherkessk, Elista. Twenty papers were presented within three sections: 1) GIS in archaeological study; 2) Archaeology and remote sensing data; 3) Geophysical methods in field archaeological study and three-dimensional modelling. Abstracts and presentations, as well as full versions of the papers are published in the current issue of the electronic journal “Archaeology and geoinformatics” (2010). Articles published now are brief variants of selected papers presented at the Round table.
Key words: round table, archaeology, geoinformatics, geoinformation systems, remote sensing, geophysical methods, three-dimensional modelling
S.M. Vovkodav. Creating an information system of burial mounds in the Brovarka River valley.
Abstract. The article presents an attempt to compile a general map of burial mounds in the Brovarka River valley (Kiev region). The work was based of cartographic sources, space shots and field researches. Beside the study of settlement network, much attention was paid to the ancient earthen structures (burial mounds, ‘maidans’, so-called Zmievy Valy). Around 200 burial mounds are known in the valley. We plan to compile an electronic map and site database for effective protection and investigation of the sites. At present few sites can be located on the map according to their description in archaeological field reports. The general map of burial mounds was created by comparison of the cartographic and remote sensing data by means of GIS.
Key words: geoinformation system, remote sensing data, burial mounds, Brovarka River valley
D.S. Korobov. GIS-modelling of the Early Medieval agricultural landscapes in the Kislovodsk depression
Abstract. The article presents GIS-modelling of the agricultural holdings allocating around 156 fortified and unfortified settlements of the Kislovodsk depression. The investigation includes modelling territories of potential economic zones and ploughing areas for each settlement. It is assumed that in the 5th-8th cc. AD comparatively even areas (slopes no more than 10º) at a distant 1 km around the site were the most valuable for agriculture. The rest of the economic area simulated by means of Thiessen tessellation could have been used for pasturing and haymaking. The reconstructions were tested during combined field investigations around some fortified settlements. Computer simulation of the potential economic territories determines the area of suggested ploughing and pasturing holdings, and estimates the quantity of settled population and their cattle. Thesis on small dimension of the patronymic society of the Early Medieval Alanic population is put forward, and self-sufficiency of their economy is confirmed.
Key words: geoinformation systems, spatial analysis, settling system, North Caucasus, Alanic culture, Kislovodsk depression settlements
M.I. Petrov. GIS-technologies in investigation of the medieval urban household (on the materials from the Posolsky-2006 excavation area).
Abstract. For a long time archaeological investigations of Medieval Russian towns with anaerobic cultural layers provided informational potential for complex research of medieval urban households. Yet such investigation is limited by traditional field method based on artificial horizontal layers and assumed constructive phases. That is why the main difficulty in complex research of medieval urban household is correlation between layers and phases in each archaeological trench. The paper presents some methods of obtaining such correlation with application of GIS-technologies tested during the excavations of Posolskij-2006. Spatial distribution of mass material gives a possibility to start collecting the data on specific traces of everyday life in medieval urban household. As a whole, using GIS-technologies for investigation of the medieval urban household has considerable research potential. Adaptation of methods of spatial analysis for different types of archaeological sites is highly necessary.
Key words: geoinformation systems, spatial analysis, medieval urban household, Veliky Novgorod
I.V. Fedyunin. Possibilities of 3D modelling of cultural layers at the Mesolithic sites in the Middle Don valley (a reference site of Chetverikovo case study)
Abstract. 3D modelling of cultural layers is an effective instrument in archaeology. Not always computer software of free access is suitable for such solution. Difficulties arise on the stage of planning the model: it is necessary to obtain a “mould” of cultural layer as much close to reality as possible. A research team from Novosibirsk proposed an advanced variant of creating 3D computer models of cultural layer using 3D MAX. This method can be used at the Mesolithic sites of the Middle Don region in several aspects: 1) visualisation of all objects with determination of their spatial distribution in stratigraphy; 2) visualisation of stone tools complexes; 3) reconstruction of prehistoric surface level; 4) reconstruction of everyday living objects. Processing of collections in laboratory conditions, creation of database and 3D modelling of cultural layers usually takes more time than excavations. However, this method can provide a researcher with valuable source of archaeological information.
Key words: three-dimensional modelling, cultural deposit, Mesolithic, Middle Don
M.O. Zhukovsky. Use of CORONA satellite data in archaeological research
Abstract. Archival remote sensing data is a valuable source for archaeological research and monitoring of processes at archaeological sites caused by modern conditions. An archive of remote sensing data was obtained by American observation satellite CORONA (1959-1972). It comprises 800 000 analogue photos of the Earth surface. In 1995-1996 and 2002 the American Government unclassified the data obtained by CORONA sensors, which gives an access for using this information in scientific purposes. The paper discusses using CORONA satellite data for investigation of archaeological sites subjected to man-caused processes in the 20th c. The review of characteristics of different sensors and photo parameters, advantages and disadvantages of the system, specific features of the data is published.
Key words: remote sensing data, space photos, CORONA, archaeological investigations
I.I. Gainullin, Yu.V. Diomina, B.M. Usmanov. Application of GIS-technologies for the estimation of erosion process at the archaeological sites situated on the bank of the Kuibyshev Reservoir
Abstract. The paper deals with the problem of creation of an archaeological geoinformation system in Tatars tan Republic. Estimation of erosion on the sites situated at the Kuibyshev Reservoir, one of the largest ones in the Volga-Kama cascade is highly important. The bank erosion is a real danger for the cultural heritage, and collection of the data on trends in exogenous geological processes is necessary. Every year the increasing water level in the Kuibyshev and Nizhnekamsk reservoirs causes erosion of around 800 archaeological sites. Modern geoinformation methods are highly promising in advance of rescue archaeological investigations. Some areas at the eroded sites were chosen for testing. Remote sensing data (aerial photography and space digital images) were used, as well as topographic maps 1:50 000 and sites monitoring data. The data were analyzed by means of GIS technologies. It became possible to identify the dynamics of bank erosion during recent 40-50 years, and to create a prognostic model of sites destruction. A unique information system on archaeological objects in Tatarstan is worked out aimed at formation of a unified system of archaeological researches in the region.
Key words: geoinformation systems, remote sensing data, archaeological sites, Kuibyshev Reservoir, bank erosion processes
S.L. Smekalov. Magnetic survey of ancient sites in the Crimea and Taman Peninsula in 2009
Abstract. The paper presents the results obtained by magnetometric survey of three sites at the Kerch and Taman peninsulas – ancient settlements of Belinskoe and Zavetnoe-5 and a sacral complex Taman-16. At the ancient hillfort of Belinskoe magnetic prospection covered over 2.5 ha. Four zones were revealed on the plan. Zones I, II and III differ by their proposed building areas and functions. Zone IV corresponds to a destroyed village. Magnetometric survey of Zavetnoe-5 settlement showed anomalies interpreted as large pottery kilns. But after excavations made in 2009 it became clear that the anomalies were caused by the remains of concrete structures of the World War II. At the site Taman-16 magnetic survey covered two areas 50 x 40 m each. The site was identified as a sacral complex. Magnetic investigations of the archaeological sites in the Kerch and Taman peninsulas will be continued in the nearest field season.
Key words: magnetic survey, Classical sites, Crimean Peninsula, Taman Peninsula, settlement structure
V.G. Bezdudnyj, O.A. Radyush. Preliminary results of using magnetometry at the settlement sites: geophysical survey of the Razdolje II settlement case study
Abstract. In 2009 the settlement of Razdolje II (Kursk region) was investigated by means of magnetometry. No evidence of modern habitation was registered, whereas numerous artefacts were discovered in the plough soil with help of a metal detector; the material dates to the early 5th c. AD. Processor Overhauser sensor POS-2 in a gradient (two channels) modification was used. Measurement of the vertical gradient (2 m) of the Earth’s magnetic field was made. Continuous survey at every area of investigation was performed with the sensitivity of ± 0.1 nT and a grid no more than 0.5 m, the studied area totalling 3100 sq. m. The revealed anomalies probably point to a settlement site. No strong and highly polarised magnetic anomalies have been registered, which suggests that the settlement was not destroyed by fire. Probably, the survey was made within the territory of two households with a complex structure. Further geophysical and archaeological researches could make the interpretation of obtained results more precise.
Key words: magnetometry, Chernyakhov culture, settlements, South Russia
A.N. Fedorina. Medieval rural sites of the Suzdal region on the basis of archaeology and geophysics: investigations of 2008
Abstract. The article discusses the results and new data of geophysical surveys on medieval settlements in Suzdal Field region obtained in 2008. Analysis of their geomagnetic maps has shown correlation between concentration of surface finds and the main built-up area (provisionally identified by concentration of magnetic “spots”). The sites’ boundaries established by the two methods are similar, but not identical. Thus, the geomagnetic maps show certain objects outside the settlement area. At Ves’ 5, outside the area of concentrated anomalies, and beyond the site boundaries determined by pottery finds, an individual cluster of strong anomalies marks location of ironworks. Geomagnetic maps of Bolshoe Davydovskoe 2, Shekshovo 2 and Kibol 1 а-с, Kibol 7 show dark spots and areas of varying size and intensity, which denote geomagnetic anomalies caused by fire (hearths, buildings, household structures). The maps show the main territory of the settlements as zones of geomagnetic anomalies with clear outlines. The anomalies could have been related to planned structure of the settlement, it becomes possible to reveal their evolutionary dynamics through combined archaeological and geophysical methods.
Key words: magnetic survey, electric measurements, medieval rural dwelling sites, Suzdal Field region, archaeological field investigations
V.V. Noskevich, N.V. Fedorova. Mapping archaeological sites of the Middle Bronze Age with help of detailed magnetic survey
Abstract. In the late 1970-s – 1990-s fortified settlements were discovered in a territory of 80 000 sq. km in the Southern Urals. Over 20 sites dating from the terminal Bronze Age were revealed by aerial photography. Architectural structures, dwelling pits and burial mounds at some settlements were destroyed by ploughing. Now detailed study of the settlements is possible only with help of geophysical survey. The Bronze Age fortified settlement of Konoplyanka in the Karagaily-Ajat River valley, Chelyabinsk region, was identified on aerial photos and investigated by field survey. In 2009 detailed magnetic survey was carried out at the site in the framework of the project “Multidisciplinary investigation of the Bronze Age sites in the Southern Urals”. Magnetic maps of fortifications well correspond to the data of aerial photography, and reveal new details in the internal plan of the hillfort. At a burial mound situated nearby there was revealed a magnetic anomaly related to the objects situated in the mound bottom. Thus, geophysical survey permits reconstructing the hillfort internal plan and determine more precisely the spots for future excavations.
Key words: detailed magnetic mapping, Sintashta culture settlements, Middle Bronze Age, Southern Urals
Ph. Kohl, R. Magomedov, K. Mişiewicz. Geophysical prospecting of the Bronze Age site Velikent in 2007
Abstract. Velikent in Dagestan on western shore of the Caspian Sea is one of known archaeological sites associated with the Kura-Araxes horizon (late 4th early 3rd mill. BC). Since 1994 the site was excavated by the Dagestan-American expedition. The remains of the early settlement at Velikent occupy the tops of five natural hillocks up to 9 meters in height. At 2007 electric measurements have been carried out in separate 3 sets. On mound IV (set A) survey covered practically all the site. At mound I (set B) measurements have been taken intentionally at the area being during last 20 years intensively used for pasture and agriculture activities. Having positive results in such conditions one could plan similar activity in less destroyed parts of the site. Finally a test at the area 10 x 20 meters (set C) has been carried out close to the place laying west to the mound II. Geo-electrical survey confirmed efficiency of the method in localization of archaeological objects. However, trial pits in the places of the most significant anomalies seem to be necessary in planning future surveys.
Key words: geophysical prospecting, electric measurements, Velikent settlement, Bronze Age, Dagestan
I.V. Zhurbin. Reconstruction of fortification structure on the basis of geophysical research
Abstract. The article considers method and results of a complex research of fortified objects at the medieval hillfort of Idnakar (Udmurt Republic). Investigation combined archaeological and geophysical techniques. The middle fortification line 70 m long was studied. At least four variants of the rampart basement structure were suggested. Different models of forming the mound were determined: loam soil with admixtures covered from the outer side by ground clay; sand mound covered by loam soil and ground clay; loam soils (inner side) and sandy loams (outer slope) with admixtures covered from the inner side by ground clay; mound formed by ground clay. Using archaeological data only does not provide us with such results. Thus, the presented method opens a new way of reconstruction of structure and composition of settlement fortifications in general.
Key words: archaeological-geophysical investigations, electric measurements, reconstructions, fortification structures, medieval hillfort Idnakar, Udmurt Republic
Z.Kh. Albegova (Tsarikaeva), V.B. Kovalevskaya. Early medieval ring-shape amulets.
Abstract. The article presents the analysis of space distribution and chronology of ring-shape pendants-amulets with thickening of the 5th – 10th cc. The investigation is based on a database comprising information on 123 amulets. The authors single out two taxa for the pendants in question: 1.1 loopless one, and 1.2 looped one. Amulets 1.1 were mostly spread in the Volga-Kama region in the late 5th – 6th cc., and in the North Caucasus (starting from the second part of the 5th or 6th cc.). Amulets attributed to taxon 1.2 are derivatives of taxon 1.1, they functioned from the first part of the 8th c., mostly in the North Caucasus.
Key words: Early Middle Ages, North Caucasus, Volga-Kama region, computer mapping, spatial analysis, chronological distribution
S.N. Sanzharov. The Abashevo burial rite in the Donets River basin and its identification among the local antiquities.
Abstract. The indications of the Abashevo Bronze Age culture burial rite in the Middle Seversky Donets are considered. In the analysed group of burials such characteristics are revealed as large graves, two-storey constructions, double and collective burials, orientation of the dead to SE, their position contracted on their back with bent legs knees up, usage of charcoal. Limited number of grave goods in the Abashevo burials in the Donets basin is determined by the conditions of migration, which later transformed into a cultural standard typical of the latest Catacomb (or early multi-rib pottery culture). Characteristically transformed Abashevo burial standards are clearly present in the local latest Catacomb burials in the Seversky Donets region. In the Ukrainian sites these were often interpreted as indications of Pit-grave culture, which caused the thesis on the revival of the Pit-grave cultural traditions in the multi-rib pottery cultural milieu.
Key words: Pit-grave culture, late Catacomb culture, latest Catacomb culture, Abashevo culture, multi-rib pottery culture, Pokrovka sites
E.V. Stolyarov. The Upper Oka Early Iron Age culture: Actual investigational problems and solution perspectives.
Abstract. The Early Iron Age sites of the Upper Oka basin are traditionally attributed to the Upper Oka culture once singled out by V.V. Sedov. Since the beginning of the investigations no complex analysis of the materials has been carried out: chronological and territorial ranges of the culture remain unclear, as well as specifics of its cultural complex. To solve the above problems a series of projects should be undertaken: compiling sites catalogue based on the study of museum collections and archives; determination of geographic and topographic distribution of settlements; investigation of defensive constructions, dwelling and household complexes; characteristic of pottery materials and finds. In this way it will to determine specific features and position the discussed culture occupies among the Early Iron Age cultures of Eastern Europe.
Key words: the Upper Oka culture, investigational problems, chronology, territory, sites, pottery, finds
R.V. Stoyanov. Tomb 1517-1522 at the necropolis of Chersonese Taurian.
Abstract. The article is devoted to the materials of tomb 1517-1522 at the necropolis of Chersonese Taurian discovered in 1903 near the city south gate (Fig. 1). The tomb contained the remains of six cremation burials placed in clay urns (three of them not survived) deposited in a rectangular construction covered with stone slabs. The tomb was plundered in antiquity. The earliest of the preserved vessels is hydria 1518 (the 5th c. BC), probably, of East Greek provenance (Fig. 2). The burial deposited in it dates within a wide chronological range – the mid 5th – early 4th cc. BC. Red-figure krater 1517 made in the early 4th c. BC was deposited in the tomb not before the second part of the century (Fig. 3). Apparently, to the same period should be attributed burial in urn 1519 (Fig. 2, 6). Thus, the analysis of preserved burial vessels suggests the period from the second part of the 5th – the third quarter of the 4th cc. BC as the burial date.
Key words: Chersonese Taurian, necropolis, tomb, burial urn, hydria, krater, red-figure technique
A.M. Oblomsky, A.S. Syrovatko, I.A. Saprykina. Certain type of horse-shape pendants in the forest and forest-steppe zones of Eastern Europe.
Abstract. The article discusses cultural and chronological attribution of 13 horse-shape pendants originating from 8 sites located in the forest and forest-steppe zones of Eastern Europe (Fig. 1). The objects are considered as a single series by three indications. The horse body, legs and tail are shaped of a round-section rod without any details shown; the animal has disproportionally big mane rendered as a high ornamented crest; behind the mane in the upper part of the body the hanging loop is placed (Fig. 2). The majority of the pendants are related to the Early Iron Age complexes known in the area between the Dnieper, Don, and Oka rivers and attributed to the Yukhnov, Milograd, Dnieper-Dvina, Upper Oka, and Dyakovo cultures. They enter specific cultural circle of the forest zone. To the forest-steppe area the objects in question were brought by the population movements from the northern territory (Yukhnov culture in the Seim basin). In three cases the pendants were related to jeweller’s associations. The context of the sites that have yielded the discussed pendants dates them back to the 4th – 3rd cc. BC.
Key words: horse-shape pendants, Early Iron Age, Yukhnov, Gorodets, Dyakovo, Dnieper-Dvina, Milograd cultures
T.E. Sidorenko. Metal woman decoration of the Don Alans (Historiography of the problem and actual tasks).
Abstract. The author considers several stages in the investigation of Saltovo-Mayatskaya culture decorations and distinguishes the basic directions in previous researches. On this base a series of actual problems are raised. In the paper the way for solving of the problems in question is suggested, namely, compiling a database for the whole accumulated material, and its processing with the use of multivariate statistical analysis. This investigational strategy gives a possibility to consider the whole corpus of accumulated data correctly and present mathematically verifiable historical reconstructions on this basis.
Key words: Saltovo-Mayatskaya culture, decorations, earrings, bracelets, fingerings, burial rite, catacomb, historiography, multivariate statistical analysis
P.S. Uspensky. The results and perspectives of investigation of cremation burials in the North-Western Caucasus (8th – 13th cc. AD).
Abstract. The paper discusses some debatable problems related to the cremation burials. The rich material accumulated by now needs historical interpretation. Among the urgent problems there are those of chronological distribution of the burials of the 8th – 13th cc., and ethnic attribution of the cremation associations. Not a single hypothesis (including the Abkhazian-Adyg, Turkic, or Ugrian origin of the sites) has been sufficiently proved, the provenance of cremation rite in the Middle Age Caucasus also remains unclear. The author stresses the necessity of modern methods of working out chronology and searching ethnic markers, first of all, compiling a unified database of cremation burials, which will enable their multivariate statistical analysis. This method is promising, as far as the problems of ethnic and political history of East European population in the late 1st – early 2nd millennia are concerned.
Key words: North-Western Caucasus, cremation burials, statistics, chronology, ethnic attribution, burial rite, kurgan, ground cemetery
I.A. Druzhinina. Concerning a group of medieval kurgans in the Upper Kuban basin.
The paper presents a summarising analysis of the anthropological and archaeological materials from a group of kurgan cemeteries investigated on the Upper Kuban River. The author concludes that in the foothills of the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic a multiethnic population emerged in the 14th – 15th cc. AD. Its core was evidently formed by the settled Polovtsi, while another part of the unit consisted of the newcomers from the North-Western Caucasus – the Abazins or the Adygs, with participation of the Central Asiatic component related by its origin with the Mongol invasion of the 13th c. The anthropological material points to the process of population metisation, which is confirmed by the archaeological data, namely, mixed and unified character of the material and spiritual culture formed on the basis of different ethnic groups.
Key words: Karachay-Cherkessia, Polovtsi, Adygs, Golden Horde, burial rite, grave goods.
N.V. Lopatin. Some problems of the history of early Izborsk fortifications.
The article considers the remains of defensive structures at the Izborsk (Truvor) fortified site investigated in 1974-1992 by the expedition headed by V.V. Sedov. Principal attention is paid to the 11th-century wooden paling in the citadel, and also the reconstruction of the stone outer fortification line constructed in the same period. The author draws the chronicle data concerning the Izborsk region in the 11th – early 12th cc., mostly the military expeditions of the Novgorod princes against the Chud’ tribes. These data give grounds to suppose that construction of the citadel in the early 11th century was related to transformation of Izborsk into an outpost on the Novgorod land western frontier under Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise.
Key words: Izborsk, Truvor hillfort, fortifications, citadel, wooden paling, stone wall, rampart, ditch, the Chud’, the Estians, Novgorod princes, Yaroslav the Wise
Yu.Yu. Morgunov. Entrance constructions of the Medieval town of Sneporod.
Abstract. Excavations of the town of Sneporod mentioned in Russian chronicles have shown that its entrance of diagonal construction was rebuilt three times, but the principal details were preserved. First, the entrance construction is situated at 45º to the axis of the defensive walls; second, the entrance corridor is lined by two rows of massive frameworks filled with earth. The earliest entrance dating to the third quarter of the 11th c. consisted of deep passageway set against the tower-like gate followed by a special pit crossed by a removable bridge which originally rested on poles. At the turn of the 12th and 13th cc. The pit was filled in, whiles the entrance construction was improved by a deep bending of the entrance corridor’s south wall and supplied with a log tower of square plan. Similar entrance constructions are generally known from the Late Roman period, their early equivalents appeared in Rus’ since the late 10th c.
Key words: Sneporod, entrance construction, gate, corridor, bridge, ditch, rampart, frameworks, filling in, tower, ravine
M.P. Gaidukov. The Kozorog stone tower of the Okolny defensive wall in Veliky Novgorod.
Abstract. The paper introduces into scientific discussion a well-preserved architectural monument – the Kozorog stone gate-tower embedded into the rampart. The author investigated the tower remains by test-pits in 2009-2010. The tower is preserved up to 6 m of its original height, which exceeds all studied towers of the Okolny defensive wall. Apparently, the tower is one of those not numerous constructions with preserved arch-shape passageway and, probably, a back façade facing the city. Clear startigraphy and rather well preserved stone constructions make the Kozorog tower a kind of pilot objects. It is necessary to raise the question on its conservation with the perspective to use it as a museum object.
Key words: Veliky Novgorod, fortification system, Okolny defensive wall, Kozorog gate-tower, conservation
A.A. Kudryavtsev. A 10th-century door from Novgorod (the materials of the Troitsky excavation area XII).
Abstract. In 2000 in the course of excavations at the Troitsky XII area a wooden door with two attached key-plates was found. It was constructed of two planks (Fig. 1, 2). No lock was preserved, but some indications suggested that it belongs to the first variant of combined inner locks according to B.A. Kolchin’s typology. The find dates back to the third quarter of the 10th century. Judging from the size and mode of processing, the door belonged to a household construction.
Key words: Novgorod, Troitsky excavation area, household E, door, inner combined lock, household construction
K.A. Lavysh. Pieces of Oriental art from the territory of Byelorussia: Known and new finds (the 10th – 14th cc.).
Abstract. The paper is devoted to the objects of Oriental art dating from the 10th – 14th cc. found in the territory of Byelorussia. A series of categories are considered: glass and clay vessels, silk textiles, metal and bone objects (Figs. 1-3). The author presents the results of studying museum collections, new finds, and checking up attribution of already known objects. This work gives grounds to suggest some new interpretations and corrections for the corpus of Oriental finds known from Byelorussia.
Key words: Byelorussia, Orient, Byzantium, glass
V.I. Zavyalov, N.N. Terekhova. Technological innovations in blacksmith’s craft of the Beloozero region.
Abstract. The results of archaeometallographic investigations give grounds to suppose that blacksmith’ craft in the Beloozero region underwent strong innovation impetuses in two different periods. The first impetus of clearly divergent character was caused by Scandinavian influence, but had no prolonged effect on development of local ironworking. Another technological innovation was of Slavic-Russian origin; it spread gradually, but in effect turned to be more stable. Analytical investigations of material from Medieval Russian sites of other regions have shown that for a long period welding-on technological scheme remained basic one in blacksmith’s craft, an was practiced until the beginning of industrial production of iron goods.
Key words: technology, blacksmith’s craft, Beloozero region, innovations, three-fold welding, typology
V.L. Derzhavin. Burial complexes of the Spitsbergen Pomors.
Abstract. Over twenty burial sites are known at the Spitsbergen, both cemeteries and single graves, usually situated close to the stations. The burials are divided into three groups. In the first one the dead were deposited in pits in supine position, the head pointing W, the pits often covered with stones and surmounted with cross. Another group includes secondary burials, mostly of skulls, also with cross on the top. To the third group we preliminary attest the remains of hunters with indications of violent death discovered in dwellings or close to them. According to forensic expertise, some skulls show the signs of fatal traumas dealt with sharp objects. The archaeological data correspond to those of written sources containing information on criminal conflicts, especially dramatic in the first third of the 19th c., when the archipelago was actively explored by the Norsemen.
Key words: Spitsbergen archipelago, Pomor burials, orientation, traumas, written sources
Yu.A. Likhter. Databases in investigation of the world of ancient objects: Technology and possibilities.
Abstract. Material objects are viewed as sources of hidden information. The source must be transformed to extract this information. As a result, a new version, or model of material source arises. In the seminar “Morphology of antiquities” headed by Yu.L. Shchapova a system model of material sources’ description has been worked out. It assumes that statistical determination of indication weight should follow its logical analysis, which lets revealing hidden factors ruling the evolution direction in the selection under investigation, and thus enables transition from searching “a working indication” to revealing a working subsystem. This principle is shown on various categories. Database is presented as a series of tables aimed at revealing “a working subsystem” each.
Key words: information, databases, indication, model, material source
Translated by L.I. Avilova