PROBLEMS AND MATERIALS
Makarov N. A., Engovatova A. V, Koval V Yu. Archaeological Excavations in the Eastern Part of the Moscow Kremlin in 2014-2016. . . . . 7 [pdf]
Mastykova A. V., DobrovolskayaM. V., Yuganov K. L. The Shlakalken-5 Cemetery: Cultural and Chronological Continuity of the sites dated to the roman Period and the migration Period in the northern Part of the sambian Peninsula (appendix: Solov’yova L. N. results of determination of Wood species from Cemetery Shlakalken-5) . . . . . 28 [pdf]
Sedov Vl. V. The north Portal of the Cathedral of the nativity of the mother of God in Bogolyubovo. . . . . 56 [pdf]
TRANSACTIONS OF THE CONFERENCE «PROBLEMS OF RESEARCH OF BONE INDUSTRY IN THE STONE AGE OF EASTERN EUROPE AND THE CAUCASUS» MOSCOW, 2016, APRIL 28-29
Akhmetgaleeva N. B. Importance of Experimental and Edge-wear Analysis Methods in the studies of Paleolithic Bone Industries: the Example of Eastern European sites. . . . . 70 [pdf]
Averbouh A. Hard Animal Material Transformation during the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Europe: Analysis and Chronocultural Trends. . . . . 86 [pdf]
Zheltova M. N. Distinctive Features of Bone, Teeth and Tusk Use by Kostenki 4 Inhabitants: strategy or Conditions of the source? . . . . . 102 [pdf]
Zhitenev V. S. Imitations Reflected in Jewelry of the Upper Paleolithic of the Russian Plain. . . . . 117 [pdf]
Soldatova T. E. The technological stage of bead production from mammoth tusk at the Upper Paleolithic Sungir’ site. . . . . 130 [pdf]
Pitulko V. V. Reconstructed Technologies of Working Mammoth Tusk for Making Tools (based on the artifacts from the Yana complex of sites) . . . . . 142 [pdf]
Volkov P. V., Lbova L. V. Distinctive Features of Ivory Working Technology and Main Tools for Making Portable Art Items from the Malta Collection. . . . . 157 [pdf]
Golovanova L. V. Bone Items from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic Periods in the Caucasus. . . . . 167 [pdf]
Simonenko A. A., Khaikunova N. A. Bone Inventory from the Tretiy Mys Site. . . . . 185 [pdf]
Zhilin M. G. Results of the Edge-wear Analysis of Bone Arrowheads from Mesolithic sites of the Gorbunovo Peat-Bog. . . . . 195 [pdf]
Savchenko S. N. Bone Industry of the Mesolithic sites of the Gorbunovo Peat-Bog in the Mesolithic Context of the Urals and Eastern Europe. . . . . 214 [pdf]
Lozovskaya O. V., Lozovski V. M. Leister and spear Points of the Late Mesolithic-Neolithic: Interpretation Issues (based on the artifacts from the Zamostje 2 site) . . . . . 230 [pdf]
Skochina S. N., En’shin D. N. Bone offerings from a Neolithic Grave at Mergen’ 7. . . . . 242 [pdf]
NEW INVESTIGATIONS AND NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS
Gudimenko I. V., Faifert A. V. Eneolithic-Early Bronze Age Graves from the Dyunnoye I Ground Cemetery. . . . . 251 [pdf]
Shuteleva I. A., Shcherbakov N. B., Golyeva A. A., Lun’kov V. Yu., Lun’kova Yu. V, Leonova T. A., Orlovskaya L. B., Radivojevic M. Results of Interdisciplinary Research of Srubnaya and Alakul type Monuments in Bashkir Priural (on example of Kazburun archaeological microdistrict) . . . . . 261 [pdf]
Skakov A. Yu., Chshiev V. T. A new assemblage with an ornamented Koban-Colchis axe (grave 45, Elkhotovo cemetery) . . . . . 280 [pdf]
Berezutskiy V. D., Zolotarev P. M. A sarmatian Cauldron from the Don Left Bank Region. . . . . 298 [pdf]
Zaytseva I. E. The 10th Century bridle set from Shekshovo in Suzdal Opolye. . . . . 306 [pdf]
Tropin N. A., Lukin S. V. The Find of a Medieval Casket from the second Half of the 14th – the Middle of the 15th Centuries: Research and Modeling Experience. . . . . 323 [pdf]
Pigaryov E. M. A Tver’ Jug from the Selitrennoe Settlement. . . . . 336 [pdf]
METHODS OF NATURAL SCIENCES IN STUDIES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL ANTIQUITIES AND PALAEOANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIALS
Reshetova I. K. Revisiting the Issue of Non-caries Dental Pathology in Paleoanthropological series Based on the 2015-2016 Excavations in Velikiy Novgorod. . . . . 344 [pdf]
Voronin K. V., Matskovskiy V. V. Dendrochronological Dating of the Donated Icon of 1595-1596 with Dedicatory Inscriptions Depicting the Great Martyr Demetrius of Thessaloniki and His Life. . . . . 356 [pdf]
Makarov N. A., Engovatova A. V, Koval V Yu.
Archaeological Excavations in the Eastern Part of the Moscow Kremlin in 2014-2016
Abstract. The paper summarizes preliminary results of archaeological excavations conducted on the site where building 14 of the Moscow Kremlin had been located before it was pulled down. these were the first large-scale excavations in the eastern part of the Kremlin hill conducted on the site where the Chudov monastery, the resurrection monastery and the small nikolaevsky Palace had stood before they were torn down in 1929–1930. the 2014–2016 excavations revealed foundation pits of several Chudov monastery and Small Nikolaevsky Palace buildings dated to the 15th–17th centuries, graves of the monastery necropolis and stratified sections of the occupation layer, with the earliest strata dated to the pre-mongol period, which survived despite substantial demolition works carried out on this spot in the soviet times. the paper provides a brief description of the stratigraphic conditions of the excavated sections, remains of the buildings, some of which are now museified at two ‘archaeological windows’ in Ivanovskaya square; burial assemblages of the 14th–17th centuries and medieval cultural deposits including the deposits associated with the earliest period of this part of the Kremlin hill occupation.
Keywords: Moscow Kremlin, medieval cities, Muscovy, monasteries, town mansions, medieval necropolises, Chudov monastery, Small Nikolaevsky Palace.
Mastykova A. V., Dobrovolskaya M. V., Yuganov K. L.
The Shlakalken-5 Cemetery: Cultural and Chronological Continuity of the sites dated to the roman Period and the migration Period in the northern Part of the sambian Peninsula (appendix: Solov’yova L. N. results of determination of Wood species from Cemetery Shlakalken-5)
Abstract. The paper explores materials from Shlakalken-5, which is a ground cemetery of the Sambian-Natangian culture, discovered in the course of reconnaissance works on the Sambian Peninsula (Zelenograd district, Kaliningrad Region). The cemetery yielded artifacts from the Late Roman period – the early Migration Period. Comparison of the dates obtained through the radiocarbon analysis and the studies of the funeral offerings help date the whole cemetery to the Late Roman phases C1-D1, i. e. ca. 160/180-400/410 AD in terms of chronology of European Barbaricum. Radiocarbon analysis dates burial 3 within the chronological range from 250-440 AD (90,8 % probability by two sigma), or to the more limited range from 330 to 430 AD (64,9 % probability by one sigma). The artifacts discovered at Shlakalken-5 occupy an intermediary chronological position between Roman period antiquities from the heydays of the Sambian-Natangian culture represented by urn graves with rich funeral offerings and urnless graves with scarce funeral offerings of the Merovingian period; they all provide evidence of gradual impoverishment of the culture that can be observed at other sites as well, and, probably, reflect some crisis events associated with the Marcomannic Wars and overall decline of the Roman Empire.
Keywords: Roman period, Merovingian period, Sambian-Natangia, Sambian Peninsula, ground cemetery, cremations, anthropological expertise, radiocarbon analysis.
Sedov Vl. V.
The north Portal of the Cathedral of the nativity of the mother of God in Bogolyubovo
Abstract. The paper reports on the footings of the north portal of the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Mother of God in Bogolyubovo discovered recently during excavations. The construction of the cathedral was commissioned by the Prince Andrei the God- Loving in the middle of the 12th century. This portal as well as the footings of the walls and lesenes was constructed by Western European builders in the Romanesque style. Sculptural working of the portal footings and one of the pilasters demonstrates high- class workmanship of the stone carvers who apparently had come from Northern Italy. The paper offers a new reconstruction of the cathedral plan.
Keywords: Vladimir-SuzdaT principality, North-Eastern Rus, princely residence, medieval Russian architecture, sculpture, Romanesque architecture, architectural archaeology, reconstruction.
Akhmetgaleeva N. B.
Importance of Experimental and Edge-wear Analysis Methods in the studies of Paleolithic Bone Industries: the Example of Eastern European sites
Abstract. This paper discusses importance of experimental research methods in the studies of bone industries. It contains a brief review of the areas where the employment of such methods has proven to be the most effective in recent years. It is important to be aware of the fact that a modern person is not always able to understand actual processes used in making and application of many bone items from the Paleolithic period. Therefore, it is not possible to rely on empiric concepts of a modern person based on his or her life experience. At the current stage of scientific development the application of experimental and edge-wear research methods is now not only possible but is also mandatory. The morphology analysis of Paleolithic bone items without linkage to their production technology and functionality inevitably leads to controversial and sometimes erroneous results.
Keywords: Paleolithic of Eastern Europe, bone industries, experimental and edge-wear research methods.
Hard Animal Material Transformation during the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Europe: Analysis and Chronocultural Trends
Abstract. A single aim underlies the transformation of osseous material: the production of an object. But this produced object is only of interest because it enables a given activity to be carried out, in accordance with specific social, economic and cultural needs. The technical and conceptual components of the work of osseous materials denote these close links and thus, have a certain chronocultural value. In order to decipher these components, it is essential to be able to identify them and to prioritize them on a coherent framework. This paper presents it briefly (with definitions of technique, process, method, scheme) before giving a rapid overview of the predominant transformation schemes during the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Europe summarizes our current knowledge of the subject.
Keywords: osseous technology, Upper Palaeolithic, transformation schemes, Western Europe.
Zheltova M. N.
Distinctive Features of Bone, Teeth and Tusk Use by Kostenki 4 Inhabitants: strategy or Conditions of the source?
Abstract. The Kostenki-Borschevo area represents distinct variants of Gravettian industries from the so called Eastern Gravettian to the so called ‘biryuchien’ (derived from the name of the site known as Biryuchya Balka), which includes a group of sites with absolutely different traditions. Similarity between these sites is reflected in the typological features of lithic implements and tools, while their differences make them almost incomparable in many other respects. That is why, the analysis of bone industry is so important not only from the typological point of view but also from the point of view of the strategy for using bones by the earliest inhabitants of the sites, their preservation conditions and spatial distribution. It is this line of thought that is proposed to be used in review of the artifacts uncovered at the Aleksandrovskaya site, which is the largest in terms of the area and the number of finds, and which has been excavated almost in full.
Keywords: Upper Paleolithic, bone industry, Gravettian, spatial analysis, ornamentation of artifacts, strategy for using raw materials, preservation conditions of the bone, faunal remains.
Zhitenev V. S.
Imitations Reflected in Jewelry of the Upper Paleolithic of the Russian Plain
Abstract. Imitations reflected in jewelry pieces and minor arts items appeared at the sites in Europe and Siberia in the Initial upper Paleolithic and spread during the early upper Paleolithic. The aim of such imitations was not only to reproduce the form of some natural features but also the material from which jewelry pieces were made. In this case copying of the form of natural features and the look (color, texture) of raw materials is not always explained by a shortage or absence of originals to be imitated. Jewelry made from amber, canine teeth of the deer, polar fox, etc. imitating some features have been found on the Russian Plain. despite regional specifics in selecting animal species, whose teeth were used to make jewelry or which were imitated by jewelry pieces, a general European tendency of using predominantly canine teeth of the deer and polar fox/fox to make jewelry is traced down quite easily at the sites dated to the Initial upper Paleolithic and the early and the middle periods of the upper Paleolithic of the Russian Plain.
Keywords: Initial upper Paleolithic, early upper Paleolithic, Gravettian, Kostenki- Avdeevo culture, Kostenki XVII/2, sunghir, Kapova Cave, jewelry, raw material.
Soldatova T. E.
The technological stage of bead production from mammoth tusk at the Upper Paleolithic Sungir’ site
Abstract. The subject of the present paper is technology of manufacturing ivory beads from the collections of the open-air Upper Paleolithic Sungir’ site. Working with the Sungir’ collection, the author identified seven ivory flakes of similar morphology and size. All these flakes are small, subrectangular in profile fragments of mammoth tusk. In scientific literature such items are known as truncated flakes. These linear preforms are associated with the production of personal ornaments from mammoth task such as beads and diadems. In addition to the truncated flakes, the collection also contains baguettes used to separate bead preforms; the collection also comprises bead preforms in various production stages. The study demonstrated that a similar technology of making beads from mammoth tusk was used across a large area extending from Western Europe to arctic siberia in the early upper Paleolithic.
Keywords: Early Upper Paleolithic, Sungir’ site, ivory industry, techno-typological analysis, personal ornaments of mammoth tusk.
Pitulko V. V.
Reconstructed Technologies of Working Mammoth Tusk for Making Tools (based on the artifacts from the Yana complex of sites)
Abstract. Working of mammoth tusk to produce various tools and implements became widespread and reached its technological peak shortly before the Last Glacial Maximum, with the relevant evidence traceable up to the turn of the Pleistocene- Holocene boundary across all regions of Eurasia populated by both mammoths and humans. Production of items from mammoth tusk, especially projectiles and spears may be considered the most important innovation of the Upper Palaeolithic. The Yana site materials that date to ~ 28 000 years BP (uncal.) are important for understanding methods and technologies used in production of tools and implements from mammoth tusk. The studies of the Yana artifacts demonstrate that all these processes are convincingly documented by the archaeological finds. Several sequences of technological operational processes, including production of long preform ivory shafts by lateral exfoliation with wedging have been reconstructed.
Keywords: Arctic Siberia, Upper Palaeolithic, Yana site, ivory technologies, longitudinal exfoliation.
Volkov P. V., Lbova L. V.
Distinctive Features of Ivory Working Technology and Main Tools for Making Portable Art Items from the Malta Collection
Abstract. A new stage in the studies of the Malta Paleolithic ’classical’ collection of items made from mammoth ivory is linked to an issue of probable cultural differentiation, distinctive features of materials in the Siberian and Eurasian contexts as well as opportunities for more detailed microscopic analysis of technological assemblages. The technological analysis made it possible to systemize techniques of working with ivory, methods applied to give a specific shape to items and ornament portable art items; correlate morphological types, technological processes and sets of stone implements employed. The characteristics of technological traces on ivory tusks helped identify a consistent set of tools and techniques, which implies the use of a standard technology and mass-production of ivory items for various purposes. In some cases, elements of more advanced tusk working technologies have been reported, which is taken to mean the presence of (chronologically and culturally) a different component.
Keywords: Upper Paleolithic, working with ivory, technology, tools, portable art, Malta, siberia.
Golovanova L. V.
Bone Items from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic Periods in the Caucasus
Abstract. This paper is an overview of bone industries during the middle and upper Paleolithic periods in the Caucasus. It tentatively outlines some trends in development of bone carving technologies and innovations that can be identified today and describes bone artifact assemblages typical for different periods.
Keywords: bone industries, techniques, Caucasus, middle and upper Paleolithic periods.
Simonenko A. A., Khaikunova N. A.
Bone Inventory from the Tretiy Mys Site
Abstract. The paper describes and introduces into scientific discourse bone/antler artefacts from the Upper Palaeolithic site known as Tretiy mys, reviews issues related to preservation of the tools and implements made from bone/antler as well as spatial distribution of the items attributed to this group. It also raises an issue of the reasons explaining scarcity of bone tools and implements at this site.
Keywords: Tretiy mys, Palaeolithic, spatial analysis, tools and implements made from bone/antler.
Zhilin M. G.
Results of the Edge-wear Analysis of Bone Arrowheads from Mesolithic sites of the Gorbunovo Peat-Bog
Abstract. The study conducted has demonstrated that the Mesolithic layers at the Gorbunovo Peat-Bog sites have yielded diverse bone arrowheads, some of which have clear traces of use. The nature of the damage pattern, polish from use and linear traces demonstrate that the arrowheads were used in hunting, primarily, large animals. It is quite consistent with the predominance of elk bones among faunal remains recovered from these layers.
Keywords: arrowheads, bone, Mesolithic, Gorbunovo Peat-Bog, Trans-Urals, edge- wear analysis.
Savchenko S. N.
Bone Industry of the Mesolithic sites of the Gorbunovo Peat-Bog in the Mesolithic Context of the Urals and Eastern Europe
Abstract. The excavations of multi-layer Mesolithic sites of the Gorbunovo peat-bog that yielded assemblages of items made from bones and antler dated to various stages of the Mesolithic were of immense significance to our understanding of the Urals Mesolithic period. The artifacts retrieved helped identify distinctive features and trace down the evolution of bone industry in this microregion and the entire middle Transurals region. the analysis of the artifacts revealed that the Gorbunovo peat-bog sites are attributed to the middle Transurals mesolithic culture as well as identified a lot of similarities between the bone industry at the Gorbunovo peat-bog sites, the bone industry of the middle Transurals mesolithic culture and mesolithic artifacts from Eastern Europe both in terms of morphological characteristics and in terms of production technologies. This fact helped bring forward an issue that the middle Transurals mesolithic culture and a number of east European mesolithic cultures belonged to the same cultural community.
Keywords: mesolithic, bone industry, urals, Gorbunovo peat-bog sites, east European analogues.
Lozovskaya O. V., Lozovski V. M.
Leister and spear Points of the Late Mesolithic-Neolithic: Interpretation Issues (based on the artifacts from the Zamostje 2 site)
Abstract. Projectile points reflect the result of prehistoric population adaptation to paleoecological conditions of the social and cultural environment. In case of ancient societies with a stable economy, a standard set of game animals and birds and a high percentage share of fishing, a diversity of bone points of hunting weapons poses an issue of their functions in the subsistence system. Artifacts from Zamostje 2, a Mesolithic site in the Volga-Oka interfluve, are used to review morphological patterns and discuss interpretations of one of the least studied groups of ranged weapons, i.e. large points of spears or leisters. Despite strong similarity of proportions and techniques used in shaping some components, the points show substantial differences, which influence key performance characteristics of this type of weaponry, such as presence or absence of side prongs and presence or absence of a hole for attaching a line. Interpretation of these typological features is directly linked with a need to reconstruct methods of hunting (on land and on water) and determine huntable species. In the absence of direct archaeological evidence, it is not easy to find an answer to this question.
Keywords: mesolithic, Neolithic, Russian Plain, bone industry, hunting weapons, spear/leister points, Zamostje 2.
Skochina S. N., En’shin D. N.
Bone offerings from a Neolithic Grave at Mergen’ 7
Abstract. The paper analyzes artifacts from a grave discovered near a dwelling of the Kozlovo culture at the Neolithic settlement of Mergen’ 7. The use-and-wear analysis was performed to determine functions of the grave offerings consisting of bone tools and implements. This analysis provided additional data on ideological concepts of the Neolithic population inhabiting the forest-steppe Ishim River region.
Keywords: forest-steppe Ishim River region, Neolithic, Mergen’ 7 settlement, bone tools and implements, use-and-wear analysis.
Gudimenko I. V., Faifert A. V.
Eneolithic-Early Bronze Age Graves from the Dyunnoye I Ground Cemetery
Abstract. A ground cemetery dating to the Eneolithic-Early Bronze Age was excavated in the course of the examination of a Srubnaya (timber-Srubnaya grave) culture near the village of Starocherkasskaya in the Aksay district, Rostov Oblast. The discovered graves revealed the deceased placed in extended or contracted position and accompanied by funeral offerings, namely, three vessels, flint implements and pendants made from animal teeth. One case of stratigraphy of the graves was established. The funeral offerings and distinctive features of the burial rite provide an opportunity to compare the site with the Koysug kurgan burial ground explored in 1966-1972. There are analogies among other kurgan sites located in the Left bank of the Lower Don and the Middle Don Regions.
Keywords: kurgan, Eneolithic, Bronze Age, Yamnaya culture, grave.
Shuteleva I. A., Shcherbakov N. B., Golyeva A. A., Lun’kov V. Yu., Lun’kova Yu. V, Leonova T. A., Orlovskaya L. B., Radivojevic M.
Results of Interdisciplinary Research of Srubnaya and Alakul type Monuments in Bashkir Priural (on example of Kazburun archaeological microdistrict)
Abstract. The publication summarizes the results of complex interdisciplinary research of monuments of the Late Bronze Age of Srubnaya-Alakul culture in Kazburun archaeological district. Given the chronological framework of the existence of a cultural community in the Bashkir Transurals revealed its characteristic features in the anthropological and paleogenetics form, as probable construction methods and features of settlements and burial ground sites.
Keywords: the Late Bronze Age, Bashkir Transurals, Srubnaya-Alakul type of monuments, interdisciplinary studies, radiocarbon AMS-dating, ADNA-analyzes (paleogenetics).
Skakov A. Yu., Chshiev V. T.
A new assemblage with an ornamented Koban-Colchis axe (grave 45, Elkhotovo cemetery)
Abstract. This paper introduces into scientific discourse a new assemblage of the Koban culture, i. e. grave 45 from the Elkhotovo cemetery (North Ossetia), which, along with a rather diverse set of funeral offerings, has yielded a bronze ornamented axe decorated in the traditions of the Koban-Cholchis graphic style. Over the past years this axe has been the fourth find of this type in the context of funeral assemblages discovered in the North Caucasus. The axe depicts a stylized beast (Group 7 after A. Yu. Skakov); taking distinctive features of ornamentation into account, it may be linked to a ’South Ossetian’ variant of the graphic style and the dating of the axe and the funeral assemblage as a whole may fall within the middle – the second half of the 8th century BC.
Keywords: Koban culture, Early Iron Age, bronze ornamented axes, Koban-Colchis art.
Berezutskiy V. D., Zolotarev P. M.
A sarmatian Cauldron from the Don Left Bank Region
Abstract. Sarmatian bronze cauldrons in the Middle and Upper Don regions are of great rarity, and each find of this kind makes a substantial contribution to the studies of Sarmatian archaeology. The paper explores a Sarmatian cauldron discovered in a destroyed kurgan near the village of Sredny Ikorets of the Liski district, Voronezh Oblast (the Don Left Bank Region). On the basis of the cauldron shape and its ornamentation elements, this find may be linked to the Middle Sarmatian culture and dated to the 1st- 2nd centuries AD.
Keywords: Middle Don, Sarmatians, Middle Sarmatian culture, bronze cauldron.
Zaytseva I. E.
The 10th Century bridle set from Shekshovo in Suzdal Opolye
Abstract. The paper examines bronze parts of a bridle set from a male cremation grave made in the last quarter of the 10th century in Shekshovo (Suzdal Opolye). The set included four strap-dividers: two leaf-shaped plaques used as jingle bells; a pear-shaped jingle bell with an aperture in the form of a cross; at least eight identical strap-ends; at least 23 (24?) mounts of three types; and a small iron buckle. The composition of the set and some of its components have analogies found among artifacts of nomadic graves from the Lower Volga region. The Shekshovo find emphasizes once more a syncretic nature of culture of the Medieval Russia military elite of that time, which combined elements of different origins and styles ranging from Scandinavian to nomadic.
Keywords: Medieval Russia, funeral ritual, metal parts of the bridle set.
Tropin N. A., Lukin S. V.
The Find of a Medieval Casket from the second Half of the 14th – the Middle of the 15th Centuries: Research and Modeling Experience
Abstract. Remains of a wooden casket with an internal deadlock, a lid hinge and iron plates (four corner plates and six flat plates) were found lying on the floor of a household structure at a medieval homestead located in the suburbs of Yelets. It is a rare find. The preservation of the recorded components in situ and wood remains in the form of a humus layer enabled the researchers to make conclusions about its design, size and position after the basement was filled up with soil. To reconstruct the casket, a high-precision 3D model was created. The photogrammetry method was used for this purpose. The modeling results provided an opportunity to establish characteristics of the casket: its size was 270 x 420 x 210 mm, the thickness of the walls and the lid was 20 mm. It has been established that its size is consistent with Russian measures of length. Further finds of similar plates in situ will make it possible to forecast new possible finds of medieval caskets.
Keywords: Tselykovka 2 settlement, casket, metal plates, internal deadlock, lid hinge, modeling.
Pigaryov E. M.
A Tver’ Jug from the Selitrennoe Settlement
Abstract. The paper reports on the materials from the excavations of sarai, which was the capital of the Golden horde, conducted in 2015. The excavations yielded a jug made of white-burnt clay with green glaze (fig. 1). The body of the vessel is ornamented with two impressed decorative rows made by round figural stamps, with each row featuring a different figural composition. The figural pattern of the stamps is of two types, namely, the so called “ferocious animal” and “archangel”, or ‘Alexander of Macedon” The analysis of the technology, the jug shape and ornamentation allows the archaeologists to date it to the end of the 14th – early 15th centuries. Besides, given the characteristics of the figural stamp impressions on the vessel found in the Golden Horde capital, it may be argued that the jug belongs to a group of prestigious ceramics. This fact, in its turn, can help link this find to the arrival of an embassy of either the Prince Mikhail Alexandrovich or the Prince Ivan Mikhailovich of Tver’ in the Golden Horde to obtain a jarlyq (a Mongol Empire decree authorizing the rule of the prince).
Keywords: Golden Horde, Sarai, Tver’, glazed ceramics, “ferocious animal”, “archangel”.
Reshetova I. K.
Revisiting the Issue of Non-caries Dental Pathology in Paleoanthropological series Based on the 2015-2016 Excavations in Velikiy Novgorod
Abstract. The study addresses the cases of non-caries pathology of teeth related to premature dental attrition and enamel erosion. The studied cases were identified in anthropological series from the excavations in Velikiy Novgorod (2015-2016) carried out within the compound of the St. George’s (Yuryev) Monastery. Local loss of dentum was identified in the upper molars from the palatine side and in the mandible from the lingual side as well as in the lingual surface of the upper maxilla incisors and the canine teeth and the facial surface of the mandible incisors. In stomatology similar dentum changes are detected in diagnosis of the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (Imfeld, 1996; Rabine, Nostrant, 2009; Ranjitkar et al., 2012). The detected cases of teeth erosion from the paleoanthropological series offered an opportunity to look at the loss of dentum as a pathology, reconstruct ways of its development and take into account this attribute in establishing the biological age.
Keywords: paleoanthropology, archaeology, Velikiy Novgorod, dental erosion, gastro¬esophageal reflux disease (GERD), bruxism triad.
Voronin K. V., Matskovskiy V. V.
Dendrochronological Dating of the Donated Icon of 1595-1596 with Dedicatory Inscriptions Depicting the Great Martyr Demetrius of Thessaloniki and His Life
Abstract. When medieval icons are studied by applying a dendrochronological method, it is important to understand to what extent the dendrochronological dates of the icon boards reflect accurately the historical date of the icon painting. This issue can be addressed correctly only by dating a series of icons containing the dates when they were painted using a dendrochronological method. these are icons with dedicatory inscriptions containing the dates left by icon-painters in their autographs. one of such icons, which depicts the Great Martyr Demetrius of Thessaloniki and his life, comes from the Russian North; as is indicated in the dedicatory inscription, it was painted in 1595–1596. The dendrochronological date obtained for this icon is 1587. the dendrochronological date of the last preserved tree-ring of the icon board turned out to be nine years older than the date of the icon. In case of the icon in question, this chronological interval is the sum of two intervals, namely, the first interval corresponding to the number of the external tree-rings lost, and the second period, which is the period from the timber harvesting to the icon painting.
Keywords: Great Martyr Demetrius of Thessaloniki, medieval period, fine art, inscribed icon, donated icon, historically dated icon, dendrochronological dating, european north of Russia.